EIGRP

CCNP 1 version 5.0

Overview

Note: I have added additional information and slides to this presentation which is not part of the curriculum. This was done to better explain many of the EIGRP operations and technologies.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 2

EIGRP
• “Enhanced” Interior Gateway Routing Protocol • Based on IGRP and developed to allow easy transition from IGRP to • •
EIGRP. (“Like IGRP+”) Cisco proprietary, released in 1994 EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that relies on features commonly associated with link-state protocols. (sometimes called a hybrid routing protocol). Note: The Hybrid term sometimes misleads people into thinking EIGRP has the topology benefits of a link state routing protocol. It does not. EIGRP is a distance vector routing protocol and suffers from all of the same disadvantages of any other distance vector routing protocol, i.e. routing loops. distance-vector and link-state algorithms.” - I would say “features of distance-vector and link-state” not necessarily “the best.”
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

• Note: “Often described as a hybrid routing protocol offering the best of

IGRP and EIGRP: A migration path IGRP Classful Routing Protocol EIGRP Classless Routing Protocol • VLSM.edu .000/bandwidth kbps) delay = delay/10 24 bit metric for bandwidth and delay Maximum Hop Count = 255 Maximum Hop Count = 224 No differentiation between internal and external routes. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.000.000.000/bandwidth kbps) * 256 delay = (delay/10) * 256 32 bit metric for bandwidth and delay bandwidth = (10. Automatic redistribution between IGRP and EIGRP as long as “AS” numbers are the same. CIDR bandwidth = (10. Outside routes (redistributed) are tagged as external routes.

edu Router(config-router)# metric weights tos k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 .Metric Calculation (Review) – – – – k1 for bandwidth k2 for load k3 for delay k4 and k5 for Reliability EIGRP bandwidth is in kbps Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) <output omitted> Reliability Load shows reliability as a fraction of 255.113.edu shows load as a fraction of 255.21. for example (lower is better): load 10/255 (or 3% loaded link) load 40/255 (or 16% loaded link) load 255/255 (or 100% loaded link) .Displaying Interface Values Router> show interface s0/0 Serial0/0 is up. for example (higher is better): rely 190/255 (or 74% reliability) rely 234/255 (or 92% reliability) rely 255/255 (or 100% reliability) Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. line protocol is up Hardware is QUICC Serial Bandwidth Delay Description: Out to VERIO Internet address is 207. BW 1544 Kbit. rely 255/255.186/30 MTU 1500 bytes. load 246/255 Encapsulation PPP. DLY 20000 usec.

Displaying Interface Values
Router> show interface s0/0 Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is QUICC Serial Bandwidth Delay Description: Out to VERIO Internet address is 207.21.113.186/30 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 246/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) <output omitted> Reliability Load

Routing Table Metric • Default: Slowest of bandwidth plus the sum of the delays of all outgoing interfaces from “this router” to the destination network.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

EIGRP Metrics
Values displayed in show interface commands and sent in routing updates.

Media
100M ATM Fast Ethernet FDDI HSSI 16M Token Ring Ethernet T1 (Serial Default) 512K DS0 56K

Bandwidth K= kilobits
100,000K 100,000K 100,000K 45,045K 16,000K 10,000K 1,544K 512K 64K 56K

BWEIGRP
10,000,000/Bandwidth *256

DLYEIGRP Delay
100 S 100 S 100 S 20,000 S 630 S 1,000 S 20,000 S 20,000 S 20,000 S 20,000 S
Delay/10 *256

25,600 25,600 25,600 56,832 160,000 256,000 1,657,856 4,999,936 40,000,000 45,714,176

2,560 2,560 2,560 512,000 16,128 25,600 512,000 512,000 512,000 512,000

BWEIGRP and DLYEIGRP display values as sent in EIGRP updates and used in calculating the EIGRP metric. Calculated values (cumulative) displayed in routing table (show ip route).
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 8

SanJose2#show ip route D 192.168.72.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.168.64.6, 00:28:26, Serial0

A Closer Look at the Routing Table Metrics

0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.64.168.72. 00:28:26.168.6. Serial0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.The Routing Table How does SanJose2 calculate the cost for this route? Administrative Distance / Metric SanJose2#show ip route D 192.edu .

load 1/255 <output omitted> SanJose2> show interface s0/0 Serial0/0 is up. DLY 100 usec.64.5/30 MTU 1500 bytes.cf84 (bia 0010. DLY 20000 usec.7b3a.168. BW 100000 Kbit. BW 1544 Kbit. line protocol is up Hardware is Lance. load 246/255 <output omitted> Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.Displaying Interface Values Westasman> show interface fa0/0 Ethernet0 is up.edu . address is 0010. line protocol is up Hardware is QUICC Serial Description: Out to Westasman Internet address is 192.cf84) MTU 1500 bytes. rely 255/255. rely 255/255.7b3a.

000) * 256 = 25.Determining the costs Bandwidth = (10.64.64.168.657.1/30 Fa0/0 192.64.168.5/30 Bandwidth = 1.657.2/24 SanJose1 SanJose2 Delay = 512.6/30 S0/0 192.168.000.168.72.000 S0/0 192.856 S0/0 192.edu .600 S0/1 192.64.000.856 Fa0/0 192.168.000/bandwidth kbps) * 256 FastEthernet = (10.560 Fa0/0 192.1.1/24 Bandwidth = 25.000/1544) * 256 = 1.000/100.1/24 EIGRP AS 100 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.000.168.1.2/30 T1 = (10.600 Westasman Delay = 2.168.

72.1/24 Bandwidth = 25.600 S0/1 192.1/24 EIGRP AS 100 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.560 Fa0/0 192.168.856 Fa0/0 192.168.000 S0/0 192.000/10) * 256 = 512.5/30 Bandwidth = 1.2/24 SanJose1 SanJose2 Delay = 512.657.64.168.168.64.Determining the costs Delay = (delay/10) * 256 FastEthernet = (100/10) * 256 = 2.64.1/30 Fa0/0 192.2/30 T1 = (20.1.1.168.edu .000 S0/0 192.6/30 S0/0 192.560 Westasman Delay = 2.168.168.64.

168.2/30 The cost! S0/0 192.edu .1.64.000.168.1/24 bandwidth = (10.168.416 Delay = 2.0/24 from SanJose2? Cost: Slowest bandwidth + sum of delays 1.168.1/24 Westasman Bandwidth = 25.657.856 512.657.6/30 S0/0 192.64.Determining the costs What is the cost (metric) for 192.72.172.560 Fa0/0 192.168.168.2/24 SanJose1 SanJose2 Delay = 512.72.168.168.600 S0/1 192.856 Fa0/0 192.560 -------------2.64.1/30 Fa0/0 192.1.000 S0/0 192.64.000/bandwidth kbps) * 256 delay = (delay/10) * 256 Slowest! EIGRP AS 100 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.5/30 Bandwidth = 1.000 2.

The Routing Table Administrative Distance / Metric SanJose2#show ip route D 192.64.168.168. 00:28:26. Serial0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.6.edu .72.

Back to the curriculum… (and some additional material) .

EIGRP and IGRP compatibility • Automatic redistribution occurs when the same AS number is used for • • EIGRP and IGRP. 17 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. EIGRP scales the IGRP metric by a factor of 256. IGRP reduces the metric by a factor o 256.edu .

• EIGRP will tag routes learned from IGRP.476(BW)+2. 18 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.000(DLY)+2.000(DLY) IGRP Metrics! (Does not multiply by 256.EIGRP and IGRP compatibility External External 10.edu . IGRP cannot differentiate between internal and external routes.476 = 6. or any outside source. as • external because they did not originate from EIGRP routers.

Appletalk – There is no IPX/SPX or Appletalk in CCNA or CCNP Rapid Convergence and Better handling of routing loops – (DUAL) (coming) Efficient Use of Bandwidth – Partial. IPX/SPX. IPX. bounded updates: Incremental updates only to the routers that need them. – Minimal bandwidth consumption: Uses Hello packets and EIGRP packets by default use no more that 50% of link’s bandwidth EIGRP packets. IPv6.edu • • . and AppleTalk Unequal-cost load balancing same as IGRP (unlike OSPF) Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.Features of EIGRP • • • • • Classless Routing Protocol (VLSM. CIDR) Faster convergence times and improved scalability Multiprotocol support: TCP/IP. PDM (Protocol Dependent Module) – Keeps EIGRP is modular – Different PDMs can be added to EIGRP as new routed protocols are enhanced or developed: IPv4.

but are kept in the topology table. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table. These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. Each EIGRP router maintains a routing table for each network protocol.EIGRP Terminology • Neighbor table – Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. 20 • • • • Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. Topology table – Every EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each configured network protocol. This table includes route entries for all destinations that the router has learned. Multiple successors for a destination can be retained in the routing table.edu . There is a neighbor table for each protocol that EIGRP supports. Routing table – EIGRP chooses the best routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table. This table is comparable to the adjacency database used by OSPF. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. Feasible successor – A feasible successor is a backup route. Successor – A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination.

the address of that neighbor and the interface used to reach it are recorded in a new neighbor table entry.1. This table is comparable to the adjacency database used by OSPF.168. There is a neighbor table for each protocol that EIGRP supports Whenever a new neighbor is discovered.2 Et0 12 00:34:46 4 Q Cnt 5000 0 200 0 RTO Seq Num 6 4 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.168.Neighbor Table • Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent • • • routers. RouterC#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 44 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 0 192.1 Se0 11 00:03:09 1138 1 192.0.edu 21 .

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. A zero means that there are no EIGRP packets in the queue. then there may be a congestion problem at the router.1 Se0 11 00:03:09 1138 1 192. Queue count The number of packets waiting in queue to be sent.168.1.edu 22 .168.0. If this value is constantly higher than zero.Neighbor Table RouterC#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 44 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 0 192.2 Et0 12 00:34:46 4 Q Cnt 5000 0 200 0 RTO Seq Num 6 4 • Neighbor address The network-layer address of the neighbor • router(s).

Neighbor Table RouterC#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 44 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 0 192. any EIGRP packets received after the first hello will reset the timer.1 Se0 11 00:03:09 1138 1 192.2 Et0 12 00:34:46 4 Q Cnt 5000 0 200 0 RTO Seq Num 6 4 • Smooth Round Trip Timer (SRTT) The average time it takes to send and receive packets from a neighbor.1. • This timer is used to determine the retransmit interval (RTO) • Hold Time The interval to wait without receiving anything from a neighbor before considering the link unavailable. the expected packet was a hello packet. • Originally.edu 23 .0.168.168. but in current Cisco IOS software releases. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

0. AppleTalk).080c 1000.0.1. IP.2 10.2.0000. RTX#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface 1 0 10.28 Se1 14 00:41:11 11 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. A router must run a unique EIGRP process for each routed protocol.1 Se1 Se0 Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 12 00:27:39 333 14 01:17:14 40 Q Cnt 1998 0 240 0 RTO Seq Num 10 27 RTX#show ipx eigrp neighbors IPX EIGRP Neighbors for process 22 H Address Interface 1 0 2000. one for each L3 protocol running (for example. router id 2 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 0 1000.123 Se0 11 00:15:01 8 1 2000.0000.0c38.edu RTO Q Cnt 200 0 200 0 Seq Num 7 9 24 .Neighbor Table • • Note that an EIGRP router can maintain multiple neighbor tables.0c76.6fa2 Se1 Se0 Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 14 00:04:21 28 14 00:04:24 28 RTO Q Cnt 200 0 200 0 Seq Num 22 22 RTX#show appletalk eigrp neighbors AT/EIGRP Neighbors for process 1.

Update. Serial0 via 206. Ethernet0 P 206. r .Passive. Ethernet0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.16.202.168.Reply status P 206.Active. R Reply.202. EIGRP uses its topology table to store all the information it needs to calculate a set of distances and vectors to all reachable destinations. – This table includes route entries for all destinations that the router has learned.1 (2195456/2169856). 2 successors.0/24.0.202. FD is 2195456 via 206.18.edu 25 .1 (2198016/2172416).17. A .2 (2198016/284160). – All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table.0/24.202.Topology Table • Topology table – Each EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each configured network protocol. FD is 2198016 via 192.Query. U . 1 successors. • More about this table later! RouterB#show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for process 44 Codes: P . Q .16.

edu 26 . does this make it a linkstate routing protocol? Answer: • No. EIGRP does not perform shortest-path calculation by calculating the shortest-path tree. the information in the topology table is not in the form of LSAs describing the complete network topology.Topology Table Question: Since EIGRP has a topology table. • Also. Cisco IP Routing Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. • The EIGRP topology table contains information about paths through the router’s adjacent neighbors. but instead uses the DUAL algorithm. Alex Zinin.

Serial0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. EX .1.1. 00:00:04.EGP i . IA . S . EIGRP displays both internal EIGRP routes and external EIGRP routes.0.168. Serial0 D 172.1.OSPF external type 2.0 [90/2681856] via 10. Each EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each network protocol.OSPF inter area E1 .EIGRP.IS-IS level-2.0 is directly connected. O .16.EIGRP external.connected.OSPF external type 1.1.0.1.IGRP. B .RIP.IS-IS. * .mobile.OSPF. R .1.candidate default U . L2 .1. M . E .IP Routing Table • • • EIGRP chooses the best (that is.static. E2 .IS-IS level-1. I .0 [170/2681856] via 10. Serial0 D EX 192. RouterB#show ip route Codes: C . successor) routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table. L1 .per-user static route Gateway of last resort is not set C 10.BGP D .edu 27 .1.

R . S . E2 .OSPF.EGP i . IA . M .static.OSPF external type 2. 00:00:04.0 [170/2681856] via 10. Serial0 D EX 192.1.BGP D .OSPF external type 1. * .1.IP Routing Table • • • The routing table contains the routes installed by DUAL as the best loop-free paths to a given destination. I .connected. Serial0 D 172. These routes can be of equal.mobile. E .1.IS-IS level-1.IGRP.0. EIGRP will maintain up to four routes per destination.IS-IS.1.0 is directly connected.per-user static route Gateway of last resort is not set C 10.16.RIP.candidate default U .0 [90/2681856] via 10.0.1.edu 28 .168. (later) RouterB#show ip route Codes: C . Serial0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.IS-IS level-2. B .1.OSPF inter area E1 . L2 . or unequal cost (if using the variance command). L1 .1. EX .EIGRP.1. O .EIGRP external.

0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.168.168. 00:28:26.edu 29 .64.72.Showing the cost in the Routing Table Routing Table SanJose2#show ip route D 192. Serial0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.6.

EIGRP Technologies Four key technologies set EIGRP apart from IGRP Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 30 .

like any other distance-vector routing protocol uses split-horizon. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. • EIGRP routers exchange routing information the same way as other distance vector routing protocols.Establishing Adjacencies with Neighbors Extra • EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. • Hellos are sent every 5 seconds by default • K values must be the same between neighbors. • EIGRP updates are only sent when a network is added or removed from the topology database.edu 31 . • Hold time tells the router how long it should consider the neighbor alive if it has not received any EIGRP packets (Hello. when the successor for a given network changes. and do not have to match neighbor.) • Hold time is normally three times the configured Hello interval. (later) • EIGRP. but do not send periodic updates. • Both the Hello and Hold time intervals are configurable on a per interface basis. • An EIGRP router assumes that. etc. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. EIGRP updates. or when the locally used metric is updated. as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.Hello Intervals and Default Hold Times • Hello Time The interval of Hello Packets • Hold Time The interval to wait without receiving anything from a neighbor before considering the link unavailable.edu 32 .

EIGRP routers do the following: • Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network • Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable • Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.Establishing Adjacencies with Neighbors By forming adjacencies.edu 33 .

updates and replies RTP is not used for EIGRP Hello’s and Ack’s 34 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. (later) RTP is used for EIGRP queries. To stay independent of IP. that is data is sent to all neighbors on a segment. RTP supports reliable and unreliable delivery RTP supports unicasting and multicasting Initial delivery of EIGRP messages are done using multicast packets.edu . and OSPF do. routers exchange routing information which is stored in the topology table. it doesn’t rely on TCP/IP to exchange routing information the way RIP. After adjacency has been formed and added to neighbor table. EIGRP uses the transport-layer protocol to guarantee delivery of routing information: RTP. that is. IGRP. and every neighbor is expected to acknowledge it with a unicast Hello packet.Reliable Transport Protocol • • • • • • • • EIGRP is protocol-independent.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. – This engine contains all the logic used to calculate and compare routes in an EIGRP network. the EIGRP route-calculation engine.edu 35 .DUAL FSM • The centerpiece of EIGRP is DUAL. – The full name of this technology is DUAL finite state machine (FSM).

DUAL FSM – Explained in a moment… • • • • DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using the information in the EIGRP tables. If a link goes down. the next hop being known as the successor. is promoted to the status of successor. provides the least-cost route to the destination. packets to the destination network are immediately forwarded to the feasible successor. meaning they are also loop-free (later). become feasible successors. • • • – Feasible successor routes can be used in case the existing route fails. DUAL looks for a feasible successor in its neighbor and topology tables. that also meet the feasible condition. which at that point. Feasible successors provide the next lowest-cost path without introducing routing loops. All other routers to the same destination. and is not part of a routing loop. Selects a best loop-free path to a destination.edu . A successor is a neighboring router that is currently being used for packet forwarding. debug eigrp fsm 36 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. or back-up routes.

IPX.Protocol-Dependent Modules (PDMs) • EIGRP is modular • Different PDMs can be added to EIGRP as new routed protocols are enhanced or developed: – IPv4.edu 37 . • The IP-EIGRP module is responsible for the following: – Sending and receiving EIGRP packets that bear IP data – Notifying DUAL of new IP routing information that is received – Maintaining the results of DUAL’s routing decisions in the IP routing table – Redistributing routing information that was learned by other IPcapable routing protocols Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. and AppleTalk Each PDM is responsible for all functions related to its specific routed protocol. IPv6.

Protocol-Dependent Modules (PDMs) Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 38 .

edu 39 . • Like OSPF. – – – – – Neighbor table Topology table Routing table Successor Feasible Successor • We will first have an overview of all of the terminology and then see how it works and what it all means! Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. or databases. EIGRP keeps this information in several tables.EIGRP Terminology and Operations • EIGRP routers keep route and topology information readily available in RAM so that they can react quickly to changes.

Let’s see how this works! Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.EIGRP Terminology and Operations • Successor – Current Route – A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. – These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. • Feasible Successor .edu 40 . – Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. – Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. but they are kept in the topology table.A backup route – A feasible successor is a backup route.

edu 41 .Successors and Feasible Successors Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

edu 42 .Successors and Feasible Successors Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

Successors and Feasible Successors Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 43 .

Reported distance (RD) is the distance (metric) towards a destination as advertised by an upstream neighbor. then I know the neighbor doesn't have a loop going through me. Reported distance is the distance reported in the queries. I will NOT include you as a FEASIBLE SUCCESSOR. Feasible successor is one who meets the feasible condition (FC). Your route (metric) to the network (RD to me) must be LESS than my current route (my total metric) to that same network. the replies and the updates. If your route (metric) to the network (RD to me) is MORE than my current route (my total metric). If your route (metric) to the network (RD to me) is LESS than my current route (my total metric)." A feasible successor is a neighbor whose reported distance (RD) is less than the current feasible distance (FD). A neighbor meets the feasible condition(FC) if the reported distance by the neighbor is smaller than or equal to the current feasible distance (FD) of this router. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 44 . "If a neighbors metric is less than mine.Successors and Feasible Successors Feasible distance (FD) is the minimum distance (metric) along a path to a destination network. I will include you as a FEASIBLE SUCCESSOR.

edu 45 .e. • Before this route can be installed. • Routing of packets continue with little delay. it must be placed in the active state and recomputed. No Feasible Successor exists: • This may be because the Reported Distance is greater than the Feasible Distance. the current route. (later) • Routing of packets continue but with more of a delay. feasible successor becomes the current successor.What if the successor fails? Feasible Successor exists: • If current successor route fails. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. i.

edu 46 .EIGRP Packet Types The five EIGRP packet types are: Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

edu 47 .72.0/24. RD is 2169856 02:21:42: DUAL: 0. FD is 2172416.0/24 03:11:44: DUAL: Find FS for dest 192.168.0 metric 2169856/0 02:21:42: DUAL: 192. RD is 2172416 03:11:44: DUAL: 192.1 metric 4294967295/4294967295 found Dmin is 216985 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0.168.64. FD is 2169856.168. Westasman#debug eigrp fsm 02:21:42: DUAL: Find FS for dest 192.168.0. Feasible successor is in the topology table.168.168.6 metric 4294967295/4294967295 not found Dmin is 4294967295 03:11:44: DUAL: Dest 192. SanJose2#debug eigrp fsm EIGRP FSM Events/Actions debugging is on SanJose2(config)#inter s 0 SanJose2(config-if)#shut 03:11:44: DUAL: Destination 192.0/24 entering active state.64. EIGRP domain still finds another route.64.72. Backup route takes over right away.72.Example of debug eigrp fsm No feasible successor in the topology table.4/30.

Stuck in Active (SIA) Router B Router C X Router D Queries Replies Router A X X X X    In some cases. 48 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. When this happens. the router that issued the query gives up and resets its neighbor relationship with the router that didn’t answer. The most basic situation where this occurs is when it simply takes too long for a query to reach the other end of the network and a reply to travel back. it can take too long for the query to be answered.edu .

Stuck in Active (SIA) • Typically.edu 49 . SIAs results when a router cannot answer a query because: – the router is too busy to answer the query (generally high cpu utilization) – the router cannot allocate the memory to process the query or build the reply packet – the circuit between the two routers is not good (packet loss) – unidirectional links (a link on which traffic can only flow in one direction due to a failure) Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

Configuring EIGRP .

edu .Configuring EIGRP for IP networks Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number • This value must match all routers within the internetwork. Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits • When configuring serial links using EIGRP it is important to configure the bandwidth setting on the interface. If the bandwidth setting is not changed for these interfaces EIGRP assumes the default bandwidth on the link instead of the true bandwidth. 51 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. Router(config-router)#eigrp log-neighbor-changes • This command enables the logging of neighbor adjacency changes to monitor the stability of the routing system and to help detect problems. Router(config-router)#network network-number • The network command configures only connected networks.

edu 52 . 2. The following three rules should be adhered to when configuring EIGRP over an NBMA cloud such as Frame Relay: 1. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. The aggregated traffic EIGRP has over all the VCs should not exceed the access line speed of the interface.EIGRP and the bandwidth command If care is not taken in the configuration of the WAN. EIGRP traffic should not exceed the CIR capacity of the virtual circuit (VC). EIGRP can swamp the network. 3. The bandwidth allocated to EIGRP on each VC must be the same in both directions.

EIGRP and the bandwidth command The following are the two main approaches: 1. – The problem with this configuration is that the higher-bandwidth links may be underutilized. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. Take the lowest CIR and multiply this by the number of VCs. – This is applied to the physical interface.edu 53 .

Three of the VCs have the same CIR. subinterfaces are configured for the links with the differing CIRs. EIGRP can swamp the network. 54 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu . which allows different speeds on each VC. 2. The single remaining VC. The bandwidth command may be configured on each subinterface. can be assigned a point-topoint subinterface. 56 Kbps. serial 0/0.EIGRP and the bandwidth command If care is not taken in the configuration of the WAN. which has a lower CIR. 256 Kbps. All three VCs are grouped together as a multipoint subinterface. The links that have the same configured CIR are presented as a single subinterface with a bandwidth reflecting the aggregate CIR of all the circuits. serial0/0.2. (For routing metric purposes only!) In this case.1. • • • • Use subinterfaces.

By default. or to accommodate an oversubscribed multipoint Frame Relay configuration.The bandwidth-percent command • The bandwidth-percent command configures the percentage of • • bandwidth that may be used by EIGRP on an interface. In order to calculate its percentage. The bandwidth value may be artificially low for a variety of reasons. In some cases.edu . 55 • • Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. the bandwidth-percent command relies on the value set by the bandwidth command. it may even be set to a number above 100. such as to manipulate the routing metric. EIGRP is set to use only up to 50% of the bandwidth of an interface to exchange routing information.

Summarizing EIGRP Routes: no auto-summary • EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing.edu 56 . Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

edu . use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary 57 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. automatic • summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly.Summarizing EIGRP Routes: no auto-summary • In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. To turn off auto-summarization.

1.0.0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.Summarizing EIGRP Routes: Interface Summarization Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance RTC(config)#router eigrp 2446 RTC(config-router)#no auto-summary RTC(config-router)#exit RTC(config)#interface serial0/0 RTC(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 2446 2.0 255.edu 58 .255.0.

00:00:22. which is 90. by default 59 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu .1.0. this route has an administrative distance of 5.0.255.0 255.0/16 is a summary.0 RTC’s Routing Table: D 2.1. and not an actual interface.Summarizing EIGRP Routes: Interface Summarization RTC(config)#interface serial0/0 RTC(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 2446 2. It assigns the route the administrative distance of a "normal" EIGRP route. RTD is oblivious to the summarization but accepts the route. On RTC. Null0 • • • • Notice that the summary route is sourced from Null0.0. That is because this route is used for advertisement purposes and does not represent a path that RTC can take to reach that network.

edu 60 .EIGRP show commands Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

edu 61 .EIGRP debug commands Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.

which is known as variance. then it isn't used in load balancing. Note: If a path isn't a feasible successor.edu 62 .EIGRP variance command Optional Interface Command: RTA(config-router)# variance number IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. The variance command instructs the router to include routes with a metric less than or equal to n times the minimum metric route for that destination. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo. where n is the number specified by the variance command.

1.1.16.edu 63 .0 Different AS numbers Router Two router eigrp 2000 redistribute igrp 1000 network 172.0 ! router igrp 1000 redistribute eigrp 2000 network 10. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0.0.16.0.0.Redistribution b/t EIGRP & IGRP Same AS numbers Router Two router eigrp 2000 network 172.0 (automatic redistribution) So what is the difference? We’ll see later when discussing Redistribution.0 ! router igrp 2000 network 10.

EIGRP and Default Routes (Review) There are three ways to inject a default route into EIGRP: • Redistribute a static route • IP default-network • Summarize to 0.0.edu 64 .0/0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0.

0.0. but will redistribute all static routes into EIGRP.x.EIGRP and Default Routes (Review) Redistribute a static route • Use the first method when you want to draw all traffic to unknown destinations to a default route at the core of the network.0 0.0. • This method is effective for advertising connections to the Internet. • For example: Gateway Router ip route 0.0 x.edu 65 .x (next hop) ! router eigrp 100 redistribute static <text omitted> Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.x.0.

1 ip default-network 207. Gateway Router router igrp 24 <text omitted> network 207.0. but needs to have a route or default route out once the packets arrive.edu 66 .20.EIGRP and Default Routes (Review) Ip default-network • Propagates a default route to other routers.0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0 ip route 0.0 0.0.0 207.21.0.0.20.21.21.20.

0.0.edu 67 .0 ! interface serial 0 ip address 10.0. router eigrp 100 network 10.1. you don't need to worry about using distribute-lists or other mechanisms to prevent the default route from being propagated toward the core of your network.0 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.0.1.0 0. • Since summaries are configured per interface.0/0 • Summarizing to a default route is effective only when you want to provide remote sites with a default route.EIGRP and Default Routes (Review) Extra: Summarize to 0.1 ip summary-address eigrp 100 0.0.0.0.0.