Lecture 5 Cellular Network

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 1

Introduction to Cellular Network

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services

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Introduction to Cellular Network
 Mobile Communications Principles  Each mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site.  The cell site talks to many mobiles at once, using one channel per mobile.  Channels use a pair of frequencies for communication — one frequency (the forward link) for transmitting from the cell site and one frequency (the reverse link) for the cell site to receive calls from the users.

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Introduction to Cellular Network
 Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles

must stay near the base station to maintain communications.  The basic structure of mobile networks includes:

telephone systems and radio services.

 Where mobile radio service operates in a closed

network and has no access to the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network.

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 The cellular concept structured the mobile telephone network in a different way.Introduction to Cellular Network  Early Mobile Telephone System Architecture  Traditional mobile service was structured in a fashion similar to television broadcasting:  One powerful transmitter located at the highest spot in an area that would broadcast in a radius of up to 50 kilometers.  Instead of using one powerful transmitter. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 5 . many low-power transmitters were placed throughout a coverage area.

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 6 . .Introduction to Cellular Network  For example. the system capacity theoretically could be increased from 12 conversations— or voice channels using one powerful transmitter—to 1.200 conversations (channels) using one hundred lowpower transmitters.  by dividing a metropolitan region into one hundred different areas (cells) with low-power transmitters using 12 conversations (channels) each.

Introduction to Cellular Network  Mobile Telephone System Using the Cellular Concept    Interference problems caused by mobile units using the same channel in adjacent areas proved that all channels could not be reused in every cell. Areas had to be skipped before the same channel could be reused. Even though this affected the efficiency of the original concept. frequency reuse was still a viable solution to the problems of mobile telephony systems. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 7 .

Introduction to Cellular Network  Engineers discovered that the interference effects were not due to the distance between areas. but to the ratio of the distance between areas to the transmitter power (radius) of the areas. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 8 . service providers could increase the number of potential customers in an area fourfold.  By reducing the radius of an area by 50 percent.

Introduction to Cellular Network  Systems based on areas with a one-kilometer radius would have one hundred times more channels than systems with areas 10 kilometers in radius.  The smaller the radius => The more channels  Speculation led to the conclusion that by reducing the radius of areas to a few hundred meters. millions of calls could be served. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 9 .

 Conversations can be handed off from cell to cell to maintain constant phone service as the user moves between cells. which allow cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand of a given area. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 10 .Introduction to Cellular Network  The cellular concept employs variable low-power levels.  As the population grows. cells can be added to accommodate that growth.  Frequencies used in one cell cluster can be reused in other cells.

so the mobiles must be within the operating range of the base station.  Like the early mobile radio system. the base station communicates with mobiles via a channel. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 11 . one for transmitting to the base station and one to receive information from the base station.  The channel is made of two frequencies.Introduction to Cellular Network  The cellular radio equipment (base station) can communicate with mobiles as long as they are within range.  Radio energy dissipates over distance.

Cellular System Architecture KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 12 .

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 13 . efficient use of the required frequencies was needed for mobile cellular coverage.  Because the amount of frequency spectrum available for mobile cellular use was limited.Cellular System Architecture  Increases in demand and the poor quality of existing service => led mobile service providers to research ways to improve the quality of service and to support more users in their systems.

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 14 . clusters.  Deployment parameters. such as amount of cell-splitting and cell sizes. rural and urban regions are divided into areas according to specific provisioning guidelines.Cellular System Architecture  In modern cellular telephony.  Provisioning for each region is planned according to an engineering plan that includes cells. are determined by engineers experienced in cellular system architecture. frequency reuse. and handovers.

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 15 .Cellular System Architecture  Cells    A cell is the basic geographic unit of a cellular system. Cells are base stations transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as hexagons. The term cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas into which a coverage region is divided.

Figure 1 shows the cells.Cellular System Architecture    Each cell size varies depending on the landscape. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 16 . the true shape of cells is not a perfect hexagon. Because of constraints imposed by natural terrain and man-made structures.

No channels are reused within a cluster. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 17 .Cellular System Architecture  Cluster    A cluster is a group of cells. Figure 2 illustrates a seven-cell cluster.

Cellular System Architecture  Frequency Reuse   Because only a small number of radio channel frequencies were available for mobile systems. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 18 . engineers had to find a way to reuse radio channels to carry more than one conversation at a time. The solution the industry adopted was called frequency planning or frequency reuse.

Cells are assigned a group of channels that is completely different from neighboring cells.  KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 19 .Cellular System Architecture  Frequency Reuse    Frequency reuse was implemented by restructuring the mobile telephone system architecture into the cellular concept. The coverage area of cells is called the footprint. The concept of frequency reuse is based on assigning to each cell => a group of radio channels used within a small geographic area.

the frequency reuse factor is 1/7. Because the number of available frequencies is 7. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 20 . That is. Cells with the same number have the same set of frequencies.Cellular System Architecture  Frequency Reuse     This footprint is limited by a boundary so that the same group of channels can be used in different cells that are far enough away from each other so that their frequencies do not interfere. each cell is using 1/7 of available cellular channels.

this approach is used to split a single area into smaller ones. economic considerations made the concept of creating full systems with many small areas impractical. To overcome this difficulty. As a service area becomes full of users. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 21 .Cellular System Architecture  Cell Splitting    Unfortunately. system operators developed the idea of cell splitting.

urban centers can be split into as many areas as necessary to provide acceptable service levels in heavy-traffic regions. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 22 .Cellular System Architecture  Cell Splitting  In this way. less expensive cells can be used to cover remote rural regions. while larger.

Cellular System Architecture  Cell Splitting  Fig: cell splitting KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 23 .

Cellular System Architecture  Handoff   The final obstacle in the development of the cellular network involved the problem created when a mobile subscriber traveled from one cell to another during a call. As adjacent areas do not use the same radio channels. a call must either be dropped or transferred from one radio channel to another when a user crosses the line between adjacent cells. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 24 .

Handoff occurs when the mobile telephone network automatically transfers a call from radio channel to radio channel as a mobile crosses adjacent cells.Cellular System Architecture  Handoff   Because dropping the call is unacceptable. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 25 . the process of handoff was created.

Cellular System Architecture  Figure of Handoff KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 26 .

 The call continues as long as the user is talking.  When the mobile unit moves out of the coverage area of a given cell site.  At this point. and the user does not notice the handoff at all.  The system switches the call to a stronger-frequency channel in a new site without interrupting the call or alerting the user.Cellular System Architecture  During a call. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 27 . the reception becomes weak. the cell site in use requests a handoff. two parties are on one voice channel.

Cellular System Components KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 28 .

 It has the capacity to serve tens of thousands of subscribers in a major metropolitan area.Cellular System Components  The cellular system offers mobile and portable telephone stations the same service provided fixed stations over conventional wired loops. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 29 .

Cellular System Components  The cellular communications system consists of the following four major components that work together to provide mobile service to subscribers:     public switched telephone network (PSTN) mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) cell site with antenna system mobile subscriber unit (MSU) KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 30 .

Cellular System Components: Typical Cellular Network KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 31 .

and the long-haul network that interconnect telephones and other communication devices on a worldwide basis. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 32 .Cellular System Components  PSTN  The PSTN is made up of local networks. the exchange area networks.

In analog cellular networks. the MSC controls the system operation. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 33 . and relay stations for switching calls from cell sites to wireline central offices (PSTN). field monitoring. It houses the mobile switching center (MSC).Cellular System Components  Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO)     The MTSO is the central office for mobile switching. and locates cellular subscribers. The MSC controls calls. tracks billing information.

A list of hardware located at a cell site includes power sources.Cellular System Components  The Cell Site   The term cell site is used to refer to the physical location of radio equipment that provides coverage within a cell. and antenna systems. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 34 . interface equipment. radio frequency transmitters and receivers.

0 watts)  the portable (typical transmit power is 0.Cellular System Components  Mobile Subscriber Units (MSUs)   The mobile subscriber unit consists of a control unit and a transceiver that transmits and receives radio transmissions to and from a cell site. The following three types of MSUs are available:  the mobile telephone (typical transmit power is 4.6 watts)  the transportable (typical transmit power is 1.6 watts) KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 35 .

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 36 .Cellular System Components  Mobile Subscriber Units (MSUs)    The mobile telephone is installed in the trunk of a car. The use of portable and transportable telephones is limited to the charge life of the internal battery. Portable and transportable telephones are hand-held and can be used anywhere. and the handset is installed in a convenient location to the driver.

Radio Network Planning and Optimisation KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 37 .

2)To offer the subscriber traffic network capacity with sufficiently low blocking and call dropping rate. 3)To enable an economical network implementation when the service is established and a controlled network expansion during the life cycle of the network.Radio Network Planning  Objectives of radio network planning 1)To obtain sufficient coverage over the entire service area to ensure that high quality voice services and data services with low error rates can be offered to the subscribers. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 38 .

Radio Network Planning  The radio network planning process can be divided into different phases.  Preplanning phase .the basic general properties of the future network are investigated. for example. the basic network configuration parameters and so on KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 39 . what kind of mobile services will be offered by the network. what kind of requirements the different services impose on the network.

KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 40 . All the data related to the geographical properties and the estimated traffic volumes at different points of the area will be incorporated into a digital map.A site survey is done about the to-be- covered area. Based on the propagation model. each of which records all the information about this point. which consists of different pixels. which will help to define the cell range and coverage threshold. the link budget is calculated.Radio Network Planning  Main phase . and the possible sites to set up the base stations are investigated.

will be made to improve the network planning. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 41 .Radio Network Planning  Constant adjustment . Through driving tests the simulated results will be examined and refined until the best compromise between all of the facts is achieved. Then the final radio plan is ready to be deployed in the area to be covered and served.

Radio Network Planning KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 42 .

Radio Network Planning  Network planning from operator perspective  For an operator good network planning =    Less money spend to infrastructure More satisfied customers (good service quality) Less need for adjustments Better return for investment Less need for costly hardware updates Less need for new sites (which are very expensive) KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 43  For an operator network optimization =    .

Simulated Annealing.Radio Network Optimization  There are four methods that are frequently used for optimization for solving cost functions reliably and rapidly:     Random Walk. Tabu search and Genetic Algorithms. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 44 .

 The cost function at the new neighbor is evaluated and compared to the one at the current point.Random Walk:  The Random Walk search method generates new neighbors at each iteration. the optimal value of the probability p of choosing a worse solution than the previous one is p=0. it will be conditionally accepted with a probability of p. thus evaluating all possible combinations of base stations at all possible places. then the neighbor will be unconditionally accepted. If the new cost function is lower than the old one. with p=0 becoming the greedy search algorithm with no solution accepted unless it provides a more suitable cost function.03 KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 45 . And if the new function is worse than the former. From literature surveys. and p=1 leading to the fully random search.

 It also calculates the cost function of the generated new neighbor. while in random walk the probability p is fixed from the beginning to the end of one search. and compares the result with the already obtained old result. The difference is that the probability of accepting conditionally is changing during the search procedure. which can be analogy to the cooling procedure of annealing. so that the search becomes more and more greedy. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 46 . The change of this probability is controlled using some method. There is also conditional and unconditional accept.Simulated Annealing:  The Simulated Annealing search is similar to the random walk.

but also it takes longer for the simulations to converge. and the larger the size of candidates. and so will not be taken into consideration for the generation of new neighbors.Tabu Search:  Tabu search is defined as follows:  The already selected base station positions in the last K iterations will be considered “tabu”. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 47 . the better the final result. The best value for the candidate size can be found to be equal to 10 in the literature. The size of candidates for each iteration can be reset. Usually K is chosen to be 1.

that show the best results when evaluating the cost function compared to the ones of their parents and their generation. We select those children points.  From a set of parent points.Genetic Algorithm:  The idea of Genetic Algorithm comes from the phenomena of the human evolution first proposed by Darwin. The definition of population size and generations are also similar to the candidate size and iterations mentioned before. In the Genetic Algorithm. KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 48 . we use a mutation operator that can be related to the definition of neighborhood. the children can be generated.

The End KNT 4073 Telecommunication Networks and Services 49 .