TOSHIBA EL-ARABY

Control Charts For Attributes
Mohammed Mokbil
July 2008
To Accompany Russell and Taylor, Operations Management, 4th Edition,  2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Course Outline
Session 1.1

Basic Principles of Control Charts

Day 1
Session 1.2

The Control Chart for Fraction Nonconforming

Session 2.1

The Control Chart for Nonconformity

Day 2
Session 2.2

Control charts for Attributes with variable sample size

Session 1.1 :
Basic Principles of Control Charts

Session Objectives : When You complete this session you should be able to :  Identify or Define :  Quality  Process  Statistical Process Control  Quality Improvement  Variation  Describe or Explain :  Causes of Variation  the Basic Concept of a Control Chart  How To Choose the Control Chart Type .

.quality of conformance Quality is inversely proportional to variability.quality of design .• Definitions of Quality Quality means fitness for use .

• Quality Improvement Quality improvement is the reduction of variability in processes and products. . quality improvement is also seen as “waste reduction”. Alternatively.

• Process : .

• Product Quality control is the Activities to evaluate and regulate quality following production “inspect and reject inspect and reject” • Statistical process control is a collection of tools that when used together can result in process stability and variance reduction.• Statistical Quality control is Activities undertaken to regulate quality of a product . “ Considers a subset of SQC ” .

• The Magnificent Seven : The seven major tools of SPC are : 1) Histogram 2) Pareto Chart 3) Cause and Effect Diagram 4) Defect Concentration Diagram 5) Control Chart 6) Scatter Diagram 7) Check Sheet .

but …. all others must bring data.. •Does it represent the process outputs we are interested in ? •Is it representative of our current process ? •Can we split it into subsets to aid problem solving ? •Can it be paired with process inputs ? •Is there operational definitions for how measurements are taken and data recorded ? .• what are Types Of Data ? “In God we trust .” -.The Statistician’s Creed We may have lots of data...

• what are Types Of Data ? 1.Variable (continuous) data : is that which can be physically be measured on a continuous scale.Attribute (discrete) data : is that which can be counted Examples: Broken or unbroken? On or Off? 2. Examples: Temperature Weight .

Attribute Vs. Variable data Variable Which type of data ? Length in millimeters Attribute   SMC (standard manufacturing cost) Number of breakdowns per day Average daily temperature Proportion of defective items Number of spars with concession       Lead time (days) Mean time between failure .

Attribute .gives plenty of insight into the process .tells us little about the process Variable .Which is best ? • Variable data should be the preferred type as it tells us more about what is happening to a process.

• Variation … It’s everywhere.even if variation small and appears same. • No 2 things are alike. • Variation exists . • Ability to measure variation necessary before can control. precision instruments show differences. .

Within piece e.  Basically there are 3 categories of variation in piece part production : 1. workers tired . tool wear. dimensions 3. morning & afternoon. Time to time different outcomes e.g. surface roughness 2. Piece to piece eg.g.• Variation … It’s everywhere.

humidity etc. light.• Sources of Variation :   Equipment : tool wear. environment … etc . moisture content … etc   Environment : temperature. Operator : method. motivation level. training …etc  Inspection : inspector. Vibrations … etc Material : tensile strength. inspection equipment.

can be identified.5oC ~ 37. This is in „state of statistical control‟ When causes of variation large in magnitude.Causes Of Variation : Chance & Assignable     Chance or random causes are unavoidable As long as fluctuate in natural/expected/stable pattern of chance causes of variation which are small .5oC   .36. process variation is excessive (beyond expected natural variation) „state of out of control‟ – assignable cause Example : Body temperature . classified as assignable causes of variation. If present.

• Boring predictability. tomorrow and every day. .Common Causes vs. Process out of control • A process in control. Special Causes Process in control vs. • The same today. • it‟s interesting & exciting. • Not so good for planning through. • A process out of control. • unpredictable and great for fire fighting . • What management likes.

• Data Distribution : DATA CAN BE GROUPED TO PROVIDE EASIER ANALYSIS Average Grouped Frequency Dispersion Dispersion .

3.Location.Shape.Spread. Location Spread Shape Size Size Size . 2.• Distributions can vary in : 1.

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Mode =Median =Mean Median Mean Mode Normal Distribution Skewed Distribution .

Standard Deviation: of the variance The square root . Variance: Equal to the sum of the squared deviations from the mean. divided by the sample size.MEASURES OF DISPERSION Range: The difference between the largest and smallest values.

Rational Subgroups • Subgroups or samples should be selected so that if assignable causes are present, the chance for differences between subgroups will be maximized, while the chance for differences due to these assignable causes within a subgroup will be minimized.

  

As the percentage of lots in samples is increased:  the sampling and sampling costs increase.  the quality of products going to customers increases. Typically, very large samples are too costly. Extremely small samples might suffer from statistical imprecision. Larger samples are ordinarily used when sampling for attributes than for variables.

Constructing Rational Subgroups
• Select consecutive units of production. – Provides a “snapshot” of the process. – Good at detecting process shifts. • Select a random sample over the entire sampling interval. – Good at detecting if a mean has shifted – out-of-control and then back in-control.

Consecutive Samples Random Samples .

• It presents a graphic display of process stability or instability over time.• What is a Control Chart ? • A control chart is a statistical tool used to distinguish between variation in a process resulting from common causes and variation resulting from special causes. Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Upper Specification Limit USL Upper Control Limit UCL Out of control Centerline or Average X Lower Control Limit Lower Specification Limit LCL LSL Sample number .

Control charts can tell us when a process changes .Histograms do not take into account changes over time.

A Process Is In Control If :   No sample points are outside control limits Most points are near the process average  About an equal points are above & below the centerline Points appear randomly distributed  .

Typical Out-of-Control Patterns        Point outside control limits Sudden shift in process average Cycles Trends Hugging the center line Hugging the control limits Instability .

1 sigma C.Zones For Pattern Tests UCL Zone A Zone B Zone C x + 3 sigma x + 2 sigma x + 1 sigma x .2 sigma x .3 sigma .L Zone C Zone B Zone A LCL x .

5.Identifying Potential Shifts 1. 3. 8 consecutive points on one side of the center line 8 consecutive points up or down across zones 14 points alternating up or down 2 out of 3 consecutive points in Zone A but still inside the control limits 4 out of 5 consecutive points in Zone A or B 2. . 4.

Identifying Potential Shifts .

Shift in Process Average .

Cycles .

Trend .

Hugging the Centerline or Control Limit UCL 1/3 • 1/3 • 1/3 • • • • • Process Average • • • • LCL .

• Control Charts and the normal Distribution : .

• Why Use a Control Chart? – To monitor. as a guide to local or management action. and higher effective capacity. and improve process performance over time by studying variation and its source. – Serves as a tool for ongoing control of a process. – Provides a common language for discussing process performance. control. – Distinguishes special from common causes of variation. • What Does a Control Chart Do? – Focuses attention on detecting and monitoring process variation over time. lower cost. – Helps improve a process to perform consistently and predictably for higher quality. .

Prepare  Choose measurement  Determine how to collect data. . and frequency of sampling  Set up an initial control chart Collect Data  Record data  Calculate appropriate statistics  Plot statistics on chart 2. sample size.Developing Control Charts 1.

Analyze and interpret results  Determine if in control  Eliminate out-of-control points  Recompute control limits as necessary .Next Steps 3. Determine trial control limits  Center line (process average)  Compute UCL. LCL 4.

Final Steps 5. Use as a problem-solving tool  Continue to collect and plot data  Take corrective action when necessary 6. Compute process capability .

3% -4 -3 -2 -1 2s 0 1 2 3 4  +/.1 Std Dev = 68.Choice of Control Limits 68.3% of data should be within 1 standard deviations of the mean if no „special cause‟ variation is present .3% 68.

5% -4 -3 -2 -1 4s 0 1 2 3 4  +/.Choice of Control Limits 95.2 Std Dev = 95.5% 95.5% of data should be within 2 standard deviations of the mean if no „special cause‟ variation is present .

74% of data should be within 3 standard deviations of the mean if no „special cause‟ variation is present.74% 99.Choice of Control Limits 99. Control limits are an estimation of 3 standard deviations either side of the mean.74% -4 -3 -2 -1 6s 0 1 2 3 4  +/. .3 Std Dev =99.

99. 99. .7% of the data lies within 3σ of the mean { i. • Actually.e.7% of the Data : • The use of 3-sigma limits generally gives good results in practice.3% of the data can fall outside the control limits}.0. • If approximately 99. then 1 .997 = 0.0027 • The limits are often referred to as action limits.3% of the data can fall outside 3σ {or 0..7% of the data should lie within the control limits}.003 or 0. we should use the more exact value 0.

Control Chart For Attributes Selection Defect or Nonconformity Data Constant sample size c chart Variable sample size u chart Defective or Nonconforming Data Constant n > 50 p or np chart Variable n > 50 p chart .

(standard deviation) charts  Charts for individuals   (x-charts) (MR-charts) Moving range charts  For Attributes data  For “defectives” (p-chart. u-chart) .(range) charts  x-bar and s.Commonly used control charts :  For Variables data  x-bar (mean) and R. np-chart)  For “defects” (c-chart.

. u-chart : Control Chart for Average Number of Nonconformities per Unit.Control Charts for attributes  For “defectives”  p-chart : Control chart for fraction nonconforming.  For “defects”   c-chart : Control Chart for Nonconformities.  np-chart : Control Chart for Number of nonconforming.

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2 : The Control Chart for Fraction Nonconforming .Session 1.

Control Chart for Fraction Nonconforming “ p Chart “  Fraction of Nonconforming is the Ratio of the number of nonconforming items in a population to the total number of items in that population The Sample Fraction of Nonconforming is the Ratio of the number of nonconforming items in the sample {D} to the sample size {n}  .

Mean & Variances Mean Variance With specified standard ” p “ value : .

it must be estimated from collected data • Average of these individual sample fractions nonconforming • Fraction Nonconforming control chart: No Standard Given “Trial Control Limit” .• When p is not known.

use the estimator .The np Control Chart : Alternative to p Control Chart  Based on the number nonconforming rather than the fraction nonconforming   If standard value p is not known.

.Development and operation of the control Chart: Example: Frozen Orange juice is packed in cans formed on a machine by spinning them from a cardboard stock and attaching a metal bottom panel. Answer: We will first collect data for trial control limits. By inspection of cans it could possibly leak and thus it is nonconforming. With sample size n=50 the following 30 samples data were collected. We wish to setup a control chart to improve the fraction of nonconforming cans produced by this machine.

No. of nonconforming cans. Di 8 10 5 13 11 20 18 24 15 9 12 7 13 9 6 . Di 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 12 15 8 10 4 7 16 9 14 10 5 6 17 12 22 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 No. of Sample Sample nonconforming cans. No.data for trial control limits No.

2313 Initial fraction nonconforming control chart .P=0.

samples 15 and 23 are eliminated and the new centerline and revised control limits are calculated as : . during the half-hour period in which sample 23 was obtained. •Furthermore. a relatively inexperienced operator had been temporarily assigned to the machine. •Consequently. so the process in out of control. •These points must be investigated to see whether assignable cause can be determined. it caused irregular production performance.•We note that two points from samples 15 and 23 plot above the UCL. •Analysis of the data from sample 15 indicates that a new material was put into production during that half-our sample.

= Points not included in control limit calculations. control chart with revised control limits .

. • Then we should discard both the two points even if the other point is between control limits. • for example : the new operator assigned again to the machine at point 24.•Now the sample 21 exceeds the UCL . •Therefore. And to use the new control limits for future samples. • Sometimes examination of data reveals information that affects other point. •But analysis didn‟t produce any assignable causes. we decided to retain the point.

After the Machine adjustments. but in a stable manner. The process is in control at level P=0. Where the Fraction of nonconforming is too high. we must examin the remaining 28 samples for runs. { 24 samples with n=50 } .Before we conclude the process is in control.2150 and with the revised control limits. Note : The process is in control . the data from the next 3 shifts was colleted as shown in the following table. It‟s Ok. That is the Top Management and the Engineering Staff to analyze the process and try to improve the Yield. We find that : the largest run is one of length 5 above the center line.

Di 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 9 6 12 5 6 4 6 3 7 6 2 4 3 6 5 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 No. of Sample Sample nonconforming cans.No. Di 4 8 5 6 7 5 6 3 5 . No. of nonconforming cans. No.

Continuation of fraction nonconforming control chart .

But with no reasonable causes. 31 to 54 ) . Calculations should be with the most recent samples ( No.From the last control chart. and possibly the operators themselves. This result in the following chart. the only logical reason is the machine adjustments made by the engineering staff. our immediate impression is that the process may be out of control. It seems logical to revise the control limits again. .

New control limits on the fraction nonconforming control chart .

Sample No. of nonconforming cans. of nonconforming Sample cans.Data for the process during the next five shifts are shown in the following table. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 No. Di 5 8 11 9 7 3 5 2 1 4 5 3 7 6 4 4 6 8 5 6 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 . 8 7 5 6 4 5 2 3 4 7 6 5 5 3 7 9 6 10 4 3 No. Di No.

Completed fraction nonconforming control chart .

by marking the time scale of the control chart when a process change is made. The control chart becomes a logbook in which the timing of process interventions and their subsequent effect on process performance are easily seen.The control chart should be continued. .

use the estimator p .Control Chart for number of Nonconforming “ np Chart “   Alternative to p Control Chart Based on the number nonconforming rather than the fraction nonconforming  If standard value p is not known.

2313) + 3√(50)(0.510 C.7687) = 20. the parameters of the np control chart would be : UCL = np + 3 √np(1-p) = 50(0.2313)(0.3 √np(1-p) = 50(0. You can find that: p = 0.2313 n = 50 Therefore.2313) = 11.620 .Revisit the first data table in the past example.565 LCL = np .2313) + 3√(50)(0.L = np = (50)(0.7687) = 2.2313)(0.

621 0 0 10 20 30 Sample Number .57 10 5 -3.0SL=2.51 1 15 NP=11.0SL=20.Initial number of nonconforming (np) control chart 25 1 20 3.

either the p or np chart can be used. In the last example use 2 and 21 as LCL and UCL.Some practitioners prefer to use integer values in control limits instead of decimal values. . When subgroup sizes are equal. They are essentially the same chart. The np chart requires that the sample size of each subgroup be the same each time a sample is drawn.

provide the same information as p chart  np chart needs less calculation ( no need to calculate Di/ni)  often used when n is constant and p is small  Limitations  not easy for interpretation when n is varied (UCL LCL and CL all vary)  only plot of defects without considering sample size. hard to take action .np Chart properties :  Advantages  np chart is a scaling of the vertical axis by the constant n.