HEAD INJURY

Head Injury

• Any trauma that leads to injury of the scalp, skull or brain.

Risk Factors

•Adult •Children •Elderly

Causes

• Motor vehicle collisions • Falls • Sports-related accidents • Assaults & other crimes

A blow to the head hard enough to make the brain hit the brain. .Type of Head Trauma • Concussion .

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Concussion .

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nausea & severe headache .Signs & Symptoms • • • • • • Short-term loss of consciousness Vomiting Anterograde & retrograde amnesia Irritability Behavior out of character Dizziness.

Contusion • Most common in 20-40 years old • Most result bleeding from arterial • Blood commonly accumulates .

confusion. disorientation. agitation or violence • Hemiparesis • Decorticate or decerebrate posturing • Unequal pupillary response .Signs & Symptoms • Severe scalp wounds • Labored respiration & loss of consciousness • Drowsiness.

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.Epidural Hematoma • Located between the inner table of the skull and the dura. • Usually due to laceration of middle meningeal artery.

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Signs & Symptoms Brief period of unconsciousness Severe headache Deterioration in LOC Respirations. initially deep & labored • Seizures • Neurologic degeneration • • • • .

Subdural Hematoma • Meningeal hemorrhages. resulting in accumulation of blood in subdural space. .

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Intracerebral Hematoma • Frontal & temporal lobes are common sites .

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Signs & Symptoms • Loss of consciousness • Coma • Possible motor deficits • Decorticate or decerebrate responses .

Depressed 4.Comminuted 3.Linear 2.Basilar .Skull Fracture • Types 1.

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Signs & Symptoms • Discontinuity & displacement of bone structure • Periobital ecchymosis • Anosmia • CSF rhinorrhea • CSF otorhea • Hemotympanium • Battles’s sign • Cardiovascular & respiratory failure .

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Diagnostic Tests • Skull X-Ray • Cerebral angiography • CT Scan • MRI • CSF Analysis .

begin rescue breathing and CPR. If necessary. Check the person's airway. If the person's breathing and heart rate are normal but the person is unconscious. breathing. Stabilize the head and neck by placing your hands on both sides of the person's head. treat as if there is a spinal injury. and circulation. Wait for medical help. keeping the head in line with the spine and preventing movement. • 2. .First Aid • 1.

• 3. Place another cloth over the first one. If you suspect a skull fracture. do NOT remove it. Stop any bleeding by firmly pressing a clean cloth on the wound. and do NOT remove any debris from the wound. do NOT apply direct pressure to the bleeding site. Cover the wound with sterile gauze dressing. If blood soaks through the cloth. be careful not to move the person's head. • 4. . If the injury is serious.

• 5. If the person is vomiting. and body as one unit to prevent choking. roll the head. . neck. which you must always assume is injured in the case of a head injury. Apply ice packs to swollen areas. This still protects the spine. • 6.

Pharmacologic Management • Diuretics • Analgesics • Anticonvulsants • Prophylactic antibiotics .

Respiratory support •Mechanical ventilation & ET intubation .

Surgical Management • Evacuation Hematoma • Craniotomy of .

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Nursing Management .

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