Week Three SS-1065D

Last week..
 Theory: Marx, Weber, Durkheim/Parsons, Bourdieu  Life-chances – how well people get on in life across



various domains including e.g. income, housing, health, education Class identification: to what extent do people identify as belonging to a particular class? Social mobility – the extent to which a person can move out of one class and into another Think about: how class divisions intersect with ethnicity and gender divisions. Feedback from last week’s discussion

This week…  What is the difference between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’?  Gender and power  Gender as a social division  Feminist theories of why and how gender operates as a social division .

’  ‘Performing’ gender (Judith Butler). a woman. expectations and behaviours linked to each gender. . ‘Masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ used to describe the social roles. hormonal  ‘Gender’ – the social identity that has become historically and culturally attached to being ‘male’ or ‘female’.see Ann Oakley ‘Sex.g. (e.Definitions  ‘Sex’ – biological differences – anatomical. Gender and Society’ [1974])  Simone de Beauvoir (1949)The Second Sex – ‘one is not born. but rather becomes.

g. Oakley1972) Education (Murphy & Elwood 1998) Advertising (Goffman 1976 Gender Advertisements) Everyday gender relations . Durkin 1995.Social construction of gender  ‘Social construction’ – social     identities attached to ‘maleness’ and ‘femaleness’ are not ‘natural’. ‘Primary socialisation’ or ‘sex role socialisation’ (birth –young childhood) (e. Bem 1989. They are produced and interpreted by human beings in society.

violence and culture. Hegemonic masculinity – an idealised form of masculinity based on assumptions of men’s greater physical and mental prowess. Oppresses women AND men. oppress and exploit women’ (Walby: 1990:20). Operates through paid work. Knowledge produced by men privileging masculine standpoint which has been thought of as neutral.Gender and power  Knowledge is a human product not an objective ‘truth’ out     there waiting to be found (see Foucault). the state. She is the Other. ‘He is the Absolute. domestic labour.’(Simone de Beauvoir 1949) Patriarchy – ‘a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate. . Women as ‘Other’. not men. sexuality.

‘Masculine’ and ‘feminine’ attributes and roles  Masculinities imposed on men and femininities imposed on women. commanding. assertive  Women – anxious. Social control  ‘Natural’ qualities of men and women (Gove and Wat 2000):  Men – active. decisive. co-operative  Implications:  What occupations are men thought to be suited to and what occupations are women thought to be suited to?  How should men and women act in personal relations with one another? Who performs which roles in families/households? . gentle. unemotional. vulnerable. perceptive.

 Women as ‘second sex’ .  Gender forms universal categorisation in all societies. . However.but men can also be constrained by ideas of masculinity  BUT social construction of these values and practices means can change! Agency.Gender and social divisions  Not just that men and women have different roles in society but that these are structural. social in origin and that men hold more power than women (Abbott 2006). Hierarchy in which men and men’s activities and attributes are more highly valued. what constitutes masculinity + femininity differs between cultures because SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED.

Concerns about working-class boys More boys at the extremes – doing very well or very badly. Overall although girls improving at a faster rate.Gender and education  Changing trends: girls doing better academically at all      levels of education up to degree level Subject choices: young women – social sciences. The culture of school – who does it work out for? Intersections with ethnicity and class (see Week 10 Education) . boys performance at school has improved too over past 20 years. engineering. Young men – maths. creative arts. technology. medicine.

5% of FTSE 100 directors are women.400 more women would rise to these levels  Very small increase since 2008 in number of women in top jobs  Only 12. secondary school heads 35.000 top positions of power. chief execs of voluntary orgs. majority of full time teachers are women (but only a third of heads)  Top jobs  If women had equal representation among UK’s 26.Gender and labour-force: ‘Sex and Power’ report 2011 (EHRC)  Middle management/professionals  45% of solicitors are women.5%. 48% . estimates that around 5.

org.pdf (data from Labour Force Survey May 2011 – data is 2010)  Types of jobs:  Occupations still heavily gendered (Abbott 2006)(although see Sex and Power report)  from control by men in the home to control in the workforce or the state (wife/secretary.uk/48/b.Gender and the labour-force  Gender and economic activity  http://www. mother/primary school teacher)? (Abbott 2006)  More women than men in part-time work:  In 2003 21 % or women and 5.3% of men in p/t (Abbott 2006) .poverty.

‘work-centred’ women.  Gender and pay:  Young men and women start out on similar earnings but men then outstrip women’s earning s in mid-life (Social Trends 2000. Critiqued by feminist sociologists!  Gender and poverty .‘home-centred’. p/t. ‘adapters’. Inequality is greatest in the higher paid jobs (Janes 2006)  Gender and ‘orientation to work’ (Catherine Hakim 1991. ONS) (not totally explained by p/t work)  in all occupations. women earn less than men. 1995) – ‘preference theory’ . Says women chose + often satisfied with low-status. low-paid jobs to fit with domestic roles.Gender and labour-force cont.

Unpaid domestic labour  Domestic labour – although women are more likely to be in paid employment outside the home. they still do most of the domestic labour as well  Women still take primary responsibility for childcare even when in paid work (Family and Working Lives Survey Department for Education and Employment 1998)  ‘Emotional labour’  Division of household tasks is more equal among younger couples and those with higher educational qualifications (British Social Attitudes Survey 1998) .

and more deaths than road traffic accidents and malaria combined.Violence  ‘Domestic violence against women of reproductive age causes as many deaths as cancer. 1993)  Statistics on domestic violence in the UK (Women’s Aid)  1 in 4 women will experience domestic violence in their life- time  2 women a week are murdered by their current or former partner  1 incident of domestic violence is reported to the police every minute.’ (World Bank. .

Feminism  First recorded use of the word in English in 1894  Feminism is focussed on social transformation with women’s emancipation at it’s core (Lynne Segal 2000)  But also free men from social control and constraints exerted by hegemonic masculinities .

gender divisions are bound up in our personal beliefs and how these are acted out in our day-to-day interactions with other people .Feminist approaches  Abbot’s (2006) categorisation:  ‘Realist’ – gender divisions have an existence in society beyond the lives of individuals who make them up  ‘Socially constructed’ .

Equal opportunities. Men AND women capable of reason so women should have rights to education. nature and culture. passion. can’t take advantage of formal equality. Women associated with nature (bodies) and passion. Problem: Ignores social value of what is done in the private sphere.Liberal feminism  Mary Wollstonecraft ‘Vindication of the Rights of     Woman’ (1792). Also if women socially and economically dependent on men. . entry into public sphere. Men with ‘reason’ (Rousseau) and culture Women oppressed because confined to reproduction and private sphere (body and passion) Solution: Desexualise reason.

Socialist feminism  Public/private spheres are interdependent  Problem with liberal feminism: to be equal women must     accept male standards. but no reciprocal role reversal expected of men in home The personal is political Second wave feminism (1960s/70s) focuses on domestic sphere as site of women’s oppression Economic inequalities. . unpaid domestic labour (Ann Oakley 1974 ‘Housewife’) Women’s inequality because of systematic operation of capitalism and patriarchy working together.

‘sisterhood’. motherhood. marriage. celebrating women’s difference from men .Radical feminism  Patriarchy is primary source of oppression . women centred culture Private experience into politics – not previously seen in scope of politics before Rape crisis and women’s aid centres .explaining      oppression as women rather than workers Sexuality. domestic violence – aspects of women’s intimate experiences in private domain Links between sexuality and social control of women through violence Women’s commonality.

including one boy. deviant.Intersectionality  ‘As a forty –nine-year-old Black Lesbian socialist mother of two. and member of an inter-racial couple. I usually find myself a part of some group defined as other. inferior or just plain wrong’ (Audre Lorde 1984)  Sojourner Truth (1852)– ‘Ain’t I a woman?’  Anna Julia Cooper intersectionality (A Voice from the South 1892) Anna Julia Cooper .

Southall Black Sisters . capitalist. which men do women want to be equal to?’  Home as a site of oppression or as a positive site of refuge against racism? (bell hooks)  Sari Squad. patriarchal class structure.Black feminists  1980s black feminist criticise ethnocentric basis of mainstream feminist  bell hooks (1987) ‘if men are not equals in white supremacist.

turn to culture – move away from material     structures.Feminism and post-modernism  Post-modernism . Control and surveillance. No absolute truth. From patriarchy (top-down power) to gendered power in everyday practices and relationships at every level of society . The power of language to construct our understanding of the world Foucault and discourse – ‘a group of statements which provide a language for talking about a topic (Stuart Hall 1992: 291) Dominant discourse of femininity – cluster of generally accepted ideas of what constitutes appropriate femininity (Janes 2009).

Discussion .

What is gender? How is it socially constructed? .

‘Young women now earn more than men’ article To what extent do you think women have broken the ‘glass-ceiling’? Give evidence for your answers Things to think about:  What kinds of jobs do women get?  Are women in positions of power?  How does women’s pay compare to men’s? .

Learner Development Unit  Questions?  Come to see me with essay plans (V.Essays  Read marking criteria  HOW DO DIFFERENT SOCIAL DIVISIONS INTERACT?  Learning Strategies class. IMPORTANT)  What will your arguments be?  What will you focus on?  How will you structure it?  What references will you use? .

Gove. S. (1995) Developmental Social Psychology. 60: 649-62. C.     First published 1949. J. Woodward (ed. from Infancy to Old Age.) Questioning Identity: gender. S. S. Durkin. Bem. K. London: Jonathan Cape. . Oxford: Blackwell. & Watt. European Sociological Review. de (1953)The Second Sex. Child Development.References  Beauvoir. (1991) ‘Grateful slaves and self-made women: fact and fantasy in women’s work orientations’. ethnicity. 7: 101-21. Hakim. (2000) ‘Identity and Gender’. L (1989) ‘Genital knowledge and gender constancy in preschool children’. London: Routledge. In K. class.

Oakley. (1998) ‘Gendered experiences. Trumansburg. Lorde. choices and achievements – exploring the links’. Janes Social Differences and Divisions. 2(2): 95-118. J. P. (1972) Sex. NY: The Crossing Press Murphy. & Elwood. Oxford: Blackwells Janes. (1984) Sister Outsider. Aldershot: Gower Publishing . (2002) ‘Understanding gender divisions: feminist perspectives’. A.) Feminism and Equality. (1987)’Feminism: a movement to end sexist     oppression’ in Philips. Journal of Inclusive Education. A. L. (ed. b. Blackwell: Oxford. In P. Braham and L. Gender and Society.References continued  hooks. A.

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