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# HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING

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## CHUBB-FORTESCUE METHOD (Peak Reading a.c Voltmeter)

Measurement of Peak values of a.c Voltage

The best known and the most usual method of measuring the peak value is the rectified capacitor current method

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## Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage

Need for Peak a.c Voltage Measurement Breakdown or rupture of insulation properties of dielectrics in general take place at the peak of the voltage applied. The power frequency ac voltage may not always have perfect sinusoidal waveform, the dc output voltage may have ripple In sinusoidal waveform, peak value = RMS value x 2 But to obtain the maximum dielectric strength of insulating solids, the waveform is non sinusoidal, peak value RMS value x 2

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Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage Standard Capacitor. Two Diodes (antiparallel) Current Integrating Ammeter. The displacement current ic t is subdivided into positive and negative components by the back to back connected diodes. The diode used in series with the milliammeter should have a low forward resistance and a high reverse resistance. Silicon diodes provide an ideal rectifier for the purpose. The measuring instruments may be included in one of the two branches.

FUNDAMENTAL CIRCUIT

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## Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage

When a sinusoidal voltage source is connected to a capacitor, charging current proportional to the voltage to be measured flows. During positive half cycle, diode D1 conducts and rectify the a.c current. During negative half cycle, diode D2 conducts Ammeter reads the mean value of the current and voltage drop across the diodes can be neglected.
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## Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage

The measuring instrument reads a magnitude of charge per cycle / mean value of the current.

ic t C

dV dt

1 t2 I t 1 ic (t )dt T
C T

dV
t2 t1

C (Vmax Vmax ) T

Vmax

I 2 fC

CfVPP
I 2CfVmax
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## Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage

Since a d.c meter is used it would read Iav, and hence would correspond to the maximum value of voltage,independent of the waveform, except in the case when there is more than one maxima and minima per cycle. In such a case the meter reading would no longer corresponds to the actual maxima but an addition of successive peak-to-peaks. When the waveform is not sinusoidal, the peak value may occur more than once in a half cycle. The standard a.c voltages for testing should not contain any harmonics and therefore there could be very short and rapid voltages caused by the heavy pre-discharges, within the test circuit which could introduce errors in measurements.
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6/14/2013

## Chubb-Fortescue Method Measurement of Peak a.c voltage

Diagram of voltage V(t) and current I(t) from the actual circuit.

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## Recommended, actual circuit

To eliminate this problem, filtering of ac voltage is carried out by introducing a damping resistor in between the capacitor and the diode circuit.

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