# EE 369

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
Lecture 9
Transformers, Per Unit Calculations
Tom Overbye and Ross Baldick
1
Announcements
For lectures 9 and 10 read Chapter 3.
Homework 7 is 5.19, 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.8, 3.10,
3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.16; due November 1.
Homework 8 is 3.19, 3.21, 3.22, 3.25, 3.26,
3.28, 3.29, 3.34, 3.37, 3.41, 3.49, 3.60; due
November 8.

2
Per Unit Change of MVA Base
Parameters for equipment are often given using
power rating of equipment as the MVA base
To analyze a system all per unit data must be on
a common power base
2 2

Hence Z
Z
/
base base
OriginalBase NewBase
pu actual pu
OriginalBase NewBase
pu pu
OriginalBase NewBase
Base Base
NewBase
OriginalBase NewBase
Base
pu pu
OriginalBase
Base
Z Z Z
V V
Z
S S
S
Z
S
÷ ÷
× =
× =
3
Per Unit Change of Base Example
•A 54 MVA transformer has a leakage
reactance of 3.69% (on its own MVA base).
•What is the reactance on a 100 MVA base?

100
0.0369 0.0683 p.u.
54
e
X = × =
4
Transformer Reactance
Transformer reactance is often specified as a
percentage, say 10%. This is a per unit value
(divide by 100) on the power base of the
transformer.
Example: A 350 MVA, 230/20 kV transformer
has leakage reactance of 10%. What is p.u.
value on 100 MVA base? What is value in
ohms (230 kV)?

2
100
0.10 0.0286 p.u.
350
230
0.0286 15.1
100
e
X = × =
× = O
5
Three Phase Transformers
•There are 4 different ways to connect 3|
transformers
Y-Y
A-A
Usually 3| transformers are constructed so all windings
share a common core
6
3| Transformer Interconnections
A-Y
Y-A
7
Y-Y Connection
Magnetic coupling with An/an, Bn/bn & Cn/cn
1
, ,
An AB A
an ab a
V V I
a a
V V I a
= = =
8
Y-Y Connection: 3| Detailed Model
9
Y-Y Connection: Per Phase Model
Per phase analysis of Y-Y connections is exactly the
same as analysis of a single phase transformer.

Y-Y connections are common in transmission systems.

Key advantages are the ability to ground each side
and there is no phase shift is introduced.
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A-A Connection
Magnetic coupling with AB/ab, BC/bb & CA/ca
1 1
, ,
AB AB A
ab ab a
V I I
a
V I a I a
= = =
11
A-A Connection: 3| Detailed Model
To use the per phase equivalent we need to use
12
A-A Connection: Per Phase Model
Per phase analysis similar to Y-Y except impedances
are decreased by a factor of 3.
Key disadvantage is A-A connections can not be
grounded; not commonly used.
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A-Y Connection
Magnetic coupling with AB/an, BC/bn & CA/cn
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A-Y Connection V/I Relationships
, also 3 30
30 30
Hence 3 and 3
For current we get
1
1
3 30 30
3
1
30
3
AB AB
an ab an
an
An AB
ab an
AB
a AB
a
A AB AB A
a A
V V
a V V V
V a
V V
V V
a a
I
I a I
I a
I I I I
I a I
= ¬ = = Z °
Z ° Z °
= =
= ¬ =
= Z÷ ° ¬ = Z °
= Z °
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A-Y Connection: Per Phase Model
Note: Connection introduces a 30 degree phase shift!

Common for transmission/distribution step-down since
there is a neutral on the low voltage side.

Even if a = 1 there is a sqrt(3) step-up ratio

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Y-A Connection: Per Phase Model
Exact opposite of the A-Y connection, now with a
phase shift of -30 degrees.

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