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Volcanoes Revision

Basic structure of Volcano

• There are 3
main types of
volcano:
• Acid Lava Dome
Eg: Puy de Dome
• Basic Lava Shield
Eg: Mauna Loa
Hawaii
• Composite cone /
Ash cone
Eg: Pinatubo -
Phillipines
Three types ….

• There are 3 main types of volcano:


• Acid Lava Dome
Eg: Puy de Dome
• Basic Lava Shield
Eg: Mauna Loa Hawaii
• Composite cone / Ash cone
Eg: Pinatubo - Phillipines
Ash Cloud
8
Crater
3

Pyroclasts
5

Pryoclastic
9 Flow
Vent
2

Lava4Flow

Layers of Ash & Secondary


7
Lava 6 Vent

Magma
A Composite Cone 1
Chamber
Three types … Dome (Acid Lava Cones)

• Acid [lava] is much thicker than [lava] which


flows from shield volcanoes.
• Dome volcanoes have much steeper sides
than shield volcanoes.
• This is because the lava is thick and sticky. It
cannot flow very far before ot cools and
hardens.
• An example is Puy de Dome in the Auvergne
region of France which last erupted over 1
million years ago.
Puy de Dome
Rounded
summit Steep
sides

Short
diameter at
the base Extinct
crater
Three types … Shield
• Shield volcanoes have gently sloping sides
and are formed from layers of lava.
• Eruptions are typically non-explosive.
• Shield volcanoes produce fast flowing fluid
[lava] that can flow for many miles.
• Examples of shield volcanoes include the
Hawaiian volcanoes.
• Although these eruptions destroy property,
death or injury to humans rarely occurs.
Three types … Shield
Mauna Loa, near the center of
Mauna Hawaii, is the central part
Kea of a huge shield volcano,
which comprises the entire
island. Its summit crater,
lies beneath a crest at
4,135 m (13,563 ft). Its
base lies about 4,000 m
(13,120 ft) below sea level,
which makes it the tallest
single mountain in the
world Mauna Kea, a crater
on the north section of the
island, is now extinct. But
the most active volcano in
the world, Kilauea, lies
Mauna Kilauea
along the east side of the
island and is visible here
Loa as a dark patch.
Three types … Composite

Composite cone or Strato volcano
Volcanic Hazards
• Lava Flows – rarely kill people, but destroy land and settlement
• Ash fall – buries crops and housing. Many years before the fertility of
the ash is useful.
• Pyroclastic flow / Glowing Cloud / Nuee ardent – clouds of
gas and ash of 1200 deg. C travelling at speeds up to 200km/h
• Lahar / Mud flows – Ash flows liquidised by heavy tropical rain or
melting snow & ice. These travel at great speed and bury land and
settlement to great depths.
• Poisonous gases – Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur dioxide kill animals and
people
• Destruction of buildings
• Loss of life
• Destruction of farmland
• Fires
• Economic losses
A comparison of the damage done by these
tectonic hazards in urban and rural areas

• urban areas have a higher density of


people and buildings than rural areas,
and thus usually suffer more loss of life
and a higher economic cost
• bridges collapse, the economy is
affected
A comparison of the effects of tectonic
hazards in MEDCs and LEDCs

• MEDCs cope better with natural disasters


because:
• they have better monitoring equipment to
predict impending disasters
• of stricter building controls
• of more effective relief measure
• of better infrastructure
• there is access to trauma counselling
Volcanic advantages
• Fertile land – eventually after many years of
weathering of the ash falls.
• Geothermal Power – in some areas this provides
electricity and hot water. Eg: Iceland
• Creates new land – lava flows reaching the sea
build up the land Eg: Hawaii and Heimaey(Iceland).
• Tourism – often provide a tourist attraction if the
volcano is not explosive. Eg: Mauna Loa, Hawaii;
Vesuvius, Italy.
• Health – hot ash and highly mineralised water used
by health spas Eg: Japan.
• Mineral Wealth – Eg: Sulphur deposits.
Protection from future tectonic
hazards

• Preparation – in anticipation of tectonic


hazards
• Prediction – to allow for evacuation