# PROFILE LEVELING

It is the leveling operation is to determine the undulations of ground surface along a predetermined line.

Primary use is for utilities: A. Highways B. Canals C. Sewers D. Sidewalks E. Retaining walls F. Water mains G. Fences

All of these need accurate information about the topography along the route.

Half or quarter stations are used when the topography is very variable. 2. Standard station distance is 100 feet. 3 . The distance from the starting point to the station is used as the station identification. 3. 1.It is a common practice to use a procedure called stationing. 4. Stations are established at uniform distances along the route.

It may be permanent or temporary.Bench Mark: it is the point mark from Which we start our work of known elevation. IN Pakistan almost mean sea level is taken as a bench mark but any arbitrary point can be taken .

BACK SIGHT It is the staff rod reading taken on a point of Known elevation as on B.M or change point and it is the first staff reading taken after the level is set up. .

S .I = R.L/B.L of plane of collimation when The instrument is correctly level H.HEIGHT OF INSTRUMENT It is the R.M+B.

INTERMEDIATE SIGHT It is the staff reading reading taken on the Point of unknown elevation from the same Of level .

FORE SIGHT It is the reading of staff rod on a point whose Elevation is to be determined as on a change Point. . It is the last staff reading of level at A same place.

PROFILE DATA TABLE STA BS HI FS I.S ELEV 9 .

1) is established even though it is not a standard station. 10 .EXAMPLE We take this rod for our leveling work Step one: establish the standard stations. Note: the last station (745.

Note a stations were established at 489.5 and the road at 489.EXAMPLE.6.4 to define the width of the road and any changes in elevation across the road. 11 . the critical features are the rapid change is slope at 337. In this example.6 and 546. Step 2: Determine the sites for the critical features.

12 .EXAMPLE Step 3: Set up the instrument and start recording data. The first rod reading is a backsight on the first sidewalk (benchmark) to establish the height of the instrument.00 feet is used. therefore 100. Note: in this case the true elevation of the benchmark is unknown.

00 13 .0 BS 10.EXAMPLE ONE DATA TABLE STA 0.5 HI 110.5 FS I.S ELEV 100.

therefore it is an intermediate foresight.EXAMPLE Step 4: Start recording the rod readings for each station. Note: station 100 is not used as a benchmark or as a turning point. 14 .

5 HI 110.0 100 BS 10.EXAMPLE DATA TABLE STA 0.5 6.2 15 .3 FS IS ELEV 100.0 104.

1 7.0 Note: the rod reading for station 489.5 400 489.6 BS 10.4 9.6 106.EXAMPLE The rod reading for each station is recorded on the appropriate line of the table.3 3. 16 .1 101.6 is placed in the FS column because this station will be used as a turning point.3 102.9 4.2 ELEV 100.4 103.5 8.5 FS IFS 6.0 104. STA 0.2 106.5 HI 110.0 100 200 300 337.

9 2.2 106.0 100 200 300 337.3 3.6 106.5 6.1 8.5 102.6 17 .6 109.3 489.8 4. STA 0.2 ELEV 100.2 102.0 BS 10.5 546.2 106.7 102.1 101.1 7.0 6.5 400 104.5 HI 110.9 4.4 9.1 1.Step 6: the instrument is moved so the remaining stations can be reached.5 FS IFS 6.6 500 6.4 103.9 107.4 600 700 745.2 104.

6 106.5 101.2 .5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 Distance 100.5 106.5 105.5 104.3 103.5 100.2 104.1 102.3 104.5 102.4 106.0 99.0 102.0 106.4 102.0 101.6 106.5 103.5 107.0 101.5 102.0 103.Sidewalk Profile 108.0 100.0 Elevation 107.9 104.0 107.0 105.