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Pumps and Pumping Systems

Categories and Types Performance Characteristics Key Design Parameters Calculation Method Specification Data Sheet Selection Guidelines Control Systems Typical Operating Problems

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Categories and Types Positive Displacement Reciprocating Rotary
Kinetic or Centrifugal Radial Axial

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Selection Guidelines
1820m

30.5m

2.3m3/h

227m3/h

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Positive Displacement Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
1.Casing, volute 2. Impeller, vanes, vane tips, backplate, frontplate (shroud), back vanes, pressure equalising passages 3. Back cover parallel to Plane of the impeller intake 4. Stuffing Box Gland/mechanical seal housing, packing/lantern ring 5. Pump shaft 6. Pump casing 7. Bearing housing 8. Bearings 9. Bearing seals

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Positive displacement Pumps are Constant Volume Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps are Constant Head Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Effect of Fluid Density on Pressure with Constant Head
Water SG=1.0 Brine SG=1.2 Gasoline SG=0.75

100m

100m

9.8 bar

11.8 bar

100m 7.4 bar

P = gh:

g = 9.81 m/s2

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1 Calculate the total differential head for the following pumping system:
8 check valve 1.8 bar

20m

8 gate valve 3m of 10 pipe 45m of 8 pipe 340 m3/h capacity

3m
Hydrocarbon, sg = 1, = 0.9cP

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Discharge head:
Static head Pressure head = 280/(9.81x1) = 20m = 28.5 m

Friction: for 8 line, flow = 340 m3/h:


u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.2032) = 2.9m/s Re = 1000 x 2.9 x 0.203/0.0009 = 6.5 x 105 /d = 0.0018/7.98 = 0.00023 f = 0.016 P/100m = 0.016 x 100 x 1000 x 2.92/(2 x 0.203) = 33.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Length of 8 pipe 3 x 8 elbows = 3 x 20.2ft = 60.6ft 1 x gate valve = 4.5 ft 1 x check valve = 50 ft Exit loss = 20 ft Total = = 45m = 18.5m = 1.4 m = 15.2m = 6.1m = 86.2m

P friction = 86.2/100 x 33.1 = 28.5 kPa h friction = 28.5/(9.81 x 1) = 2.9 m, add 20% safety for pump h friction = 1.2 * 2.9 = 3.5 m Total Discharge head = 3.5 + 20 + 28.5 = 52 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Suction head:
Static head Pressure head = 100/(9.81x1) = -3m = 10.2 m

Friction: for 10 line, flow = 340 m3/h:


u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.2552) = 1.85m/s Re = 1000 x 1.85 x 0.255/0.0009 = 5.2 x 10 5 /d = 0.0018/10.02 = 0.00018 f = 0.015 P/100m = 0.015 x 100 x 1000 x 1.852/(2 x 0.255) = 10.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Length of 10 pipe 1 x 10 elbows = 26ft Entrance loss = 15 ft Total = = 3m = 8m = 4.6m = 15.6m

P friction = 15.6/100 x 10.1 = 1.6 kPa h friction = 1.6/(9.81 x 1) = 0.16 m, add 20% safety for pump h friction = 1.2 * 0.16 = 0.2 m
Total Suction head = -3 + 10.2 0.2 = 7 m

Total differential head = 52 7 = 45 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
For similar conditions of flow (ie the same efficiency):
Capacity is directly proportional to speed Head is directly proportional to the square of speed & Power is directly proportional to the cube of speed

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
This translates into the corresponding formulae (for variations in speed with impeller diameter remaining constant) : Q2 = Q1 x (N2 N1) H2 = H1 x (N2 N1)2 P2 = P1 x (N2 N1)3

and

However, the above formulae can also be used to determine the relationship between impeller Diameter and flow, Head and Power by substituting speed (N) with Impeller Diameter (D), keeping Speed constant. Results in this case are approximate as these formulae are analogous to the Affinity Laws above. Q2 = Q1 x (D2 D1)

H2 = H1 x (D2 D1)2 P2 = P1 x (D2 D1)3

and

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps Design Parameters
Temperature Properties Capacity Head (TDH) Cavitation (NPSH) Horsepower Efficiency

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps Liquid Properties
Specific Gravity Composition/Quality Vapour Pressure Viscosity

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Effect of Viscosity on Pump Performance

Pumps and Pumping Systems Viscosity Correction

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH
Cavitation
NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head Available Required Calculation

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

Formation of vapour bubbles in pump Occurs when pressure NPSHA falls below vapour pressure Reduces capacity and efficiency Eventually flow ceases Causes noise, vibration, erosion and pump failure if allowed to persist for a prolonged period of time

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Avoiding Cavitation

Centrifugal Pumps

Establish accurate range of flow for pump. If running speed higher than pump curve data multiply NPSHR at curve speed by speed ratio ( eg. NPSHR = 3.2 x (1800 / 1500) = 3.84 m) Avoid suction specific speeds of over 6750 (metric) or 11,000 (usgpm). If possible select a pump with rated flow within 10% of best efficiency point (BEP). Select for NPSHA 10% above NPSHR. Require witnessed pump tests over flow range for critical service applications. Dont accept model tests as a basis for larger pumps.

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)= Static Head + Head developed

NPSHA = hps + hs hvps hfs


hps hs hvps hfs

Pressure Head Static suction Head (@ min. supply level) Vapour pressure Head (@ max. pumping temperature) Friction Head
ps hs

hvps
hfs

Centrifugal Pumps
The cooling water used for cooling of the reactor during the reaction is pumped from an open tank. Calculate the NPSHA for the pump given the following conditions: Temperature of Water = 30c, Density (r) @ 30C = 995.7 kg / m3 Vapour Pr @ 30c = 4.241 kPa (abs), Ha = atmospheric pr = 101.325 kPa Gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2

NPSH Example

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Example 1
Using the formula:
Where Hts = = = = = = = = = =

NPSHA =

Hts Hvap

Hvap NPSHA

total static head Atmospheric Pr (Ha) suction lift (Hs) friction losses (Hf) Ha x 1000 2.6 (1 + 0.9 + 0.4 + 0.1) gxr 101.325 x 1000 2.6 2.4 9.81 x 995.7 10.38 2.6 2.4 5.38m 4.241 x 1000 9.81 x 995.7 0.43m 5.38 0.43 4.95m

Add 10% safety factor for value specified to pump supplier: The NPSH required is thus 4.95/1.1 = 4.5 m

NPSH Example 2
Water temperature - 125 C Density @ 125 C 939 kg/m3 Vapour pr @ 125 C = 230 kPa (absolute) Gauge pr = 130 kPag Gravitational acceleration = g = 9.81 m/s^2 Suction head (Hs) = 4.0m max, 1.0m min Pipe friction loss = 1.1m Valve friction loss = 0.1m NPSHA = Hts - Hvap
max

Centrifugal Pumps

Hsmin = 1m

NPSH Example 2
Hts = = Ha + Hs - Hf (101.325 + 130) x 1000 + 1 (1.1 + 0.1) 9.81 x 939 25.1 + 1 1.2 24.9 m 230 x 1000 9.81 x 939 25.0 m 24.9 25.0 -0.1 m

Centrifugal Pumps

Hvap

= = =

= NPSHA = =

(as NPSHA is negative, the pump will start to cavitate when the tank level drops to minimum level)

To solve this problem?

Increase elevation of tank!

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Calculation Method

Define Liquid Properties: SG, VP, Vis 1 Establish Flow Rates1: Normal & Design Calculate Net Suction Pressure Calculate NPSH Available Calculate Net Discharge Pressure at Normal Flow including Control Valve P 2 Calculate Differential Pressure & Head Select Efficiency: Calculate Power

1. At pumping temperature 2. Allow of total friction P at Normal Flow for control valve. Verify control valve P at Design Flow minimum 70 kPa

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Pressure max, bar abs Temperature max, C P max, kPa Capacity max, m3/h Viscocity max Pa.s Efficiency, % range Capacity Turndown Relative Cost H = High, M = Medium,

Centrifugal 350 500 200 3600 0.2 5080 H L L = Low

Reciprocating 1000 370 1400 450 400 6090 M H

Rotary 350 400 200 340 400 40-85 M M

Pumps and Pumping Systems


Typical Operating Problems

Cavitation / Low NPSH Low Suction Pressure High Discharge Pressure High SpGr/Viscocity Capacity Loss Driver Overload