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Political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public Public does not play a significant role selecting or removing leaders from office

Political leaders:
Develop policies that dictate to the people

Built around the restriction of individual freedom Eliminate peoples right to choose

Restrict peoples
Liberties Freedom of speech Freedom of assembly

Limit individual freedom in order to produce greater social equality

Others exist only to enhance the power of those in control

Authoritarianism: Regimes and Ideologies

Fascism and Communism
Reject democracy Favor powerful state; restricted freedoms

Driven by those in power the Castro Regime

Practiced by authoritarian regimes Seek to control and transform all aspects of the state society, and economy Use violence as a tool for remaking institutions Strong ideological goal Risen rarely
Happen when those in power profess a radical or reactionary political attitude

Past governments (communist)
Joseph Stalin China during the cultural revolution o f 19301950s Cambodia: Khumer Rouge in the 1970s

Nazi Germany (except economically) Italy during WWII (never quite made it)

North Korea
Dominate by totalist ideology
backed by violence Widespread fear Absence of small personal freedoms

Iraq (under Saddam Husseins)

Highly oppressed but not set ideology Maintain and expand his political power Violence: used to keeping him in control not transformation of society

Authoritarian Rule Emerges

Natural human organization and distribution of wealth Karl Marx:
Society emerged from coercion
Few in power Limiting freedoms Increase own power at expense of society

Emerged from desire for individuals to form society Subdivision of natural state

Economic Sources of Authoritarianism

Liberals (laissez-faire capitalism leads to author.)
Strong connection Free markets: generate and distribute wealth Creates a broad middle class
More educated Political goals Limit power of political group

No middle class
Poverty and inequality is great Author. Regime develops: to defend economic wealth of a few Author. Regime: forcibly distributes wealth among the majority

Economic Sources of Authoritarianism

Strong Connection Capitalism is the source
Middle class thrives on the backs of the poor Democratic System would embrace authoritarianism: keeps lower class under control. Support it to exploit poorer countries

Authoritarianism will thrive as long as inequality exists

Economic Sources of Authoritarianism

Failure of Capitalism
Affects of hyperinflation
Generates wide spread insecurity and poverty Leads to calls of drastic change Curtail freedom for economic security

Middle class (Nazi Germany)

Economic insecurity is the greatest threat to their wealth May accept authoritarianism

Economic Sources of Authoritarianism

Some argue in order to build a strong market economy
Political rights must be restricted Focus on constructing market economy Focus on attracting investors Bread first/Ballots later
South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore Now: South Korea and Taiwan
Fast growing and powerful economies 1980-1990s they democratize

Economic Sources of Authoritarianism

Not always a recipe for wealth Capitalism and economic development coexist Communist
Increase state power/equal distribution of wealth Personal freedom and societal wealth are threatened Lose protection of property rights State responsibility for all economic activity Modern World: cause tens millions of deaths

Both share the belief that wealth and its distribution are key to understanding the emergence and persistence of authoritarian rule

Authoritarianism and Society

Culture view:
Certain cultural institutions are more amenable to authoritarianism because they promote such values as hierarchy, community, over individual rights, and deference to authority Further you move away from the West states the fewer democracies one finds
i.e. Middle East Nationalism and citizenship are defined by allegiance to faith Western Ideologies are almost alien i.e. Asian values

Not all countries seek to be democratic

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Different state, regime, and government activities and institutions perpetuate authoritarianism Do authoritarian regimes by nature rely on force to intimidate a hostile public, or can authoritarianism be accepted or even embraced by the people?

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Violence and Surveillance
Compliance and obedience are often enforced
Close observation and use of force against the population Use violence as a mechanism of public control Threaten those who challenge the political order
Sever retribution Arbitrary arrest Detention without trial Torture Death

Death Squads: police and military troops targeted individuals suspected of harboring political views

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Affected all individuals: writers, artist, students, farmers, and workers Accused of political sabotage Fear that any one could be arrested
Public could be controlled Turn public against itself

Close watch over the population

Prevents opposition from organizing Instill uncertainty among population Internal security force or secret police
Monitor: public activity, spying individuals, interrogating members of the public Telephone tapping, creation of huge network of public informers

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Cooptation: process by which individuals outside of an organization are brought into a beneficial relationship with it, making them dependent on the system for certain rewards
Widespread under authoritarianism

Coercion: public obedience is enforced through violence and surveillance

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Corporatism: authoritarian systems attempted to solidify control over the public by creating or sanctioning a limited number of organizations to represent the interest of the public, and restricting those not set up or approved by the state
Meant to replace independent organization Find labor unions, agricultural associations, student groups, neighborhood committees State, society, and the market are viewed as a single body Gives public a limited influence

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Clientelism: coopts the public by providing specific benefits or favors to a single person or small group in return for public support
Relies on individual patronage Creates a patron-client relationship

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Coopting individuals:
State jobs, state-run sectors of the economy, business contracts or licenses, public goods, kickbacks, and bribes Rent-seeking: political leaders essentially rent out parts of the state to their patrons, who as a result control public goods

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Economic resources:
Doled out for political reasons Economic problems emerge Resources are siphoned off

Authoritarianism and Political Control

Personality cult:
The public is encouraged to obey the leader based on his or her extraordinary qualities and compelling ideas. all wise, all knowing, all seeing Role of Media and Culture
Promoted through: radio, news reports, public rallies, art, music, films

Types of Authoritarian Rule

Personal Rule
Rule by a single leader, with no clear regime or rules constraining that leadership Primary Tools of control
Supporters within the state benefit directly from their alliance with the ruler (corruption)

Types of Authoritarian Rule

Military rule:
Ruled by one or more military officials, often brought to power through a coup detat Tools of control
Control of armed forces sometimes also allied with business and state elites Bureaucratic authoritarianism

Types of Authoritarian Rule

One-Party Rule
Ruled by one political party, with other groups banned or excluded from power Tools of control
Large party membership helps mobilize support and maintain public control, often in return for political or economic benefits

Types of Authoritarian Rule

Quais Democracy
Ruled by an elected leadership, though through procedures of questionable democratic legitimacy Tools of control
Manipulation of democratic procedures, such as vote-rigging or harassment of opposition

Days numbered? All societies be democratic? Inequality clash with increased freedom? Will new secular or religious vision reject democracy? Do we enjoy a Brief aberration of authoritarian rule?