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# Structural Geology

GLY 4400 - Lecture 5 Force and Stress – Normal and Shear Stress

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Rocks and Force
• Rocks constantly experience the force of gravity • They may also experience a variety of other forces, including tectonic forces and forces associated with impact • Previously, we saw that force is defined by the following equation:
– F = mA – where F is the force vector, m is mass, and A is the acceleration vector
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Responses to Force
Figure 3.2 in text

• Rocks respond to applied forces in one of two ways:
– A. Movement – Newtonian mechanics – B. Distortion – continuum mechanics

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Types of Force • Body forces – Fb ∝ m • Surface forces – Fs ∝ area 4 .

σ – σ = F/Area • Subscripts are often attached to σ to add additional information 5 .Definition of Stress • We have previously seen that stress is an internal force set up as the result of external forces acting on a body • Stress is usually represented by the Greek letter sigma.

and is sometimes called traction • In three dimensions.Stress in Different Dimensions • In two dimensional problems. which will be discussed shortly 6 . stress is a second-order tensor. stress is a vector quantity.

Traction • Stress in an arbitrary direction may be resolved into components • A. denoted σn • B. denoted σs or τ (tau) • Figure 3.3 in text 7 . Shear stress. Normal stress.

Resolution of the Stress Vector • Figure 3_4a illustrates the principle of stress resolution • A plane face is ABCD in the drawing • Note: The section through a cube implies a plane. i.e. two dimensions 8 .

is applied along rib AB • Line EF in the drawing is the trace of a plane which makes an angle θ with the top and bottom surfaces of ABCD • The force can be resolved into components Fn perpendicular to the plane.4a & b in text • A force.Force and Stress Figure 3. F. and Fs parallel to the plane 9 .

Fn = σEF cos2θ Fs = F sin θ = σAB sin θ = EF sin θ cos θ 10 .Fn and Fs • • • • • σ = F/AB (Note: F = σAB) Fn = F cos θ = σAB cos θ Since AB = EF cos θ.

Trigonometry Identity • We can use the following trigonometric identity to simplify Fs – sin θ cos θ = ½ (sin 2θ) • Fs = σEF ½ (sin 2θ) 11 .

Normal and Shear Stress • σn = Fn/EF = σ cos2θ • σs = Fs/EF = σ ½ (sin 2θ) 12 .

the stress vector acting on a plane can be resolved into vector components normal and parallel to the plane • Their magnitudes vary as a function of the orientation of the plane 13 .Stress Vector Resolution • Thus.

θ • Plot of the normalized values of normal force and the normal stress versus theta • The curves have a slightly different shape.4c in text 14 . but in both cases the normalized values decrease and go to zero at θ = 90º Figure 3.Normal Force and Stress vs.

then the shear force increases faster than the shear stress • After 45º. the shear force continues to increase.4d in text 15 . θ • The curves in this case are nearly identical until θ = 25º. but the shear stress again goes to zero at 90 º Figure 3.Shear Force and Stress vs.

every stress is opposed by an equal an opposite stress • We can connect the endpoints of the two dimensional stress vectors with a smooth curve. and are perpendicular to their respective planes • Since the body is at rest. generating the ellipse shown 16 .Stress Ellipse • Figure 3. 5a shows a plane cut by four other planes (a through d) • The stresses on each plane are plotted.

5b • This is known as the stress ellipsoid 17 . mutually perpendicular.Stress Ellipsoid • If we were to draw similar ellipses in the two additional. as shown in figure 3. planes. we could then combine the data to generate a three dimensional ellipsoid.

these axes are known as the principal stresses • Each principal stress is a vector 18 .Principal Stresses • Ellipsoids are characterized by three principal axes • In the stress ellipsoid.

6 • We can resolve the stress acting on each face of the cube into three components 19 Figure 3. and we picture a point cube. as shown in figure 3.Stress Using Cartesian Coordinates • Stress can be visualized in another manner • Using a standard three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.6 in text .

we have two shear stresses.Stress Notation • The face normal to the x-axis has a component σxx • First subscript refers to the plane. in this case the one normal to the x-axis • Second subscript refers to the component along axis x • In addition. σxy and σxz. which lie along the y and z axes within the plane under consideration 20 .

Table of Stress Components Doing the same for the other principal stress axes. we generate a table Stress on face normal to: In the direction of: x X y σxy σyy z σxz σyz x y σxx σyx Y Z z σzx σzy σzz 21 .

σyz. σxz. σyy. σyx. σzx.Stress Components • The normal stress components are σxx. and σzz • The shear stress components are σxy. and σzz 22 .

and σyz = σzy 23 .Equivalence of Shear Stress Components • Since the object is at rest. σxz = σzx. three of the six shear stress components must be equivalent to the other three (otherwise the object would move) – σxy = σyx.

Independent Stress Components • This leaves six independent components: Stress on face normal to: In the direction of: x X y z x y σxx σxy σxz σxy σyy σyz σxz σyz σzz 24 Y Z z .

Principal Stress Table Stress on face normal to: In the direction of: x X y z x y σxx 0 0 0 σyy 0 0 0 σzz Y Z z Thus oriented. and the planes perpendicular are the principal 25 planes of stress . the axes are known as the principal axes of stress.

Isotropic Stress • It is possible that the three principal stresses will be equal in magnitude • If this condition is met. the stress is said to be isotropic • The stress ellipsoid becomes a sphere 26 .

Anisotropic Stress • When the principal stresses are unequal. they are said to be anisotropic • We then introduce another convention: – σ1  σ2  σ3 • σ1 is called the maximum principal stress • σ2 is the intermediate principal stress • σ3 is the minimum principal stress 27 .

Types of Stress • General Triaxial Stress – σ1 > σ 2 > σ3 … 0 • Biaxial stress. σ3 < 0 28 . with one axis at zero – σ1 > 0 > σ3 or σ1 > σ2 > 0 • Uniaxial tension – σ1 = σ2 = 0.

σ1 > 0 • Hydrostatic or lithostatic pressure – σ1 = σ 2 = σ3 29 .Uniaxial Stress • Uniaxial compression – σ2 = σ3 = 0.

Gabriel Auguste Daubrée • Daubrée (1814-1896) was an early experimenter in many aspects of the geological sciences • He taught mineralogy at the French School of Mines • He introduced synthesis techniques and extended these to general experimental work 30 .

an experiment first performed by Daubrée • He reported some of his results at the first International Geological Conference in 1878 (Paris) 31 . Figure 3-7a shows a picture of wax placed between two wooden plates.Daubrée Experiment • For example.

Diagram of Daubrée Experiment • Plane AB is arbitrary. and it makes an angle θ with σ3 • We can make two other simplifying assumptions: – Line AB has unit length – The plane represented by AB within the block has unit area 32 .

Forces in Balance • The forces parallel and perpendicular to AB must balance • We resolve force z AB into the component of the force z BC (parallel to σ1) along CD plus the component of the force z AC along CD (parallel to σ3) • Note that ACD = θ 33 .

there is a normal stress. σs 34 .Resolving Forces – – – – forceBC = σ1cosθ (Force = stress C area) forceAC = σ3sinθ AreaBC = 1 C (cos θ) AreaAC = 1 C (sin θ) • On the AB surface. σn and a shear stress.

Normal Stress • The normal stress is the same as the stress along CD: – σn = σ1cosθCcosθ + σ3sinθCsinθ = σ1cos2θ + σ3sin2θ • Since cos2θ = ½ (1 + cos2θ) and sin2θ = ½ (1 .σ3) C cos2θ 35 .cos2θ) we get – σn = ½ (σ1 + σ3) + ½ (σ1 .

σ3sinθCcosθ = (σ1 .σ3) sinθCcosθ 36 .Shear Stress • We resolve force 2 AB into the component of the force z BC along AB plus the component of the force z AC along AB – σs = σ1cosθCsinθ .

because cos2θ = 1 at θ = 0E • The planes of maximum shear stress are at 45E relative to σ3.Simplification of Shear Stress • Substituting sinθCcosθ = ½ sin2θ gives σs = ½(σ1 .σ3)sin2θ • The planes of maximum normal stress are at θ = 0E relative to σ3. because sin2θ = 1 at 45E 37 .