You are on page 1of 17

GROUP MEMBERS

Attiqa Imtiaz (Group Leader)

OBJECTIVES
Mitosis and Its Phases Meiosis and Its Phases Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Cycle

MITOSIS
Defination: Cell divides into two daughter cells with identical copies of its DNA . Functions: 1. Formation of multicellular embryo from a fertilized egg. 2. Tissue growth. 3. Replacement of old & dead cells. 4. Repair of injured tissues.

PHASES OF MITOSIS

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

PHASES OF MITOSIS (cont)


Prophase: Condensation of chromosomes Disappearance of nucleoli Formation of mitotic spindle Division of centrioles Metaphase: Migration of mitotic spindle towards the center Formation of Equatorial plate or Metaphase plate Disappearance of nuclear envelop Pole to pole alignment of centrioles

PHASES OF MITOSIS (cont...)


Anaphase: Separation of chromatids Migration of chromosomes from the Equatorial plate At the end of this phase chromosomes cluster at the spindle poles Telophase: Appearance of cleavage furrow leading to division of two cells Appearance of Misbody Reappearance of nuclear envelope and nucleoli Uncoiling of chromosomes

MEIOSIS
Defination: the cell division which leads to the formation of four daughter cells having haploid (n) number of chromosomes. It occurs in the germ cells. Functions: Formation of germ cells Maintains the chromosome number of a species Provides genetic variation

MEIOSIS

MEIOSIS l
PROPHASE l

MEIOSIS ll
PROPHASE ll METAPHASE ll ANAPHASE ll TELOPHASE ll

METAPHASE l
ANAPHASE l TELOPHASE l

PHASES OF MEIOSIS l
Prophase l: it is further divided into following phases: Leptotene: Chromosomes become visible Zygotene: Synapsis(length wise pairing up of homologus chromosomes) occurs Pachytene: Coiling of homologous chromosomes occurs Bivalent chromosomes(each chromosome having four chromatids) are formed Due to close apposition the homologous chromosomes give a false appearance of being one chromosome and their nuclei appear erroneoursly

PHASES OF MEIOSIS l PROPHASE l (cont)


Diplotene: Formation of chiasmata Separation of homologous chromosomes except the point of chiasmata Crossing over occurs Diakinesis: Nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappears Separation of chromosomes from thickened parts of chromosomes and chiasmata occurs

PHASES OF MEIOSIS l (cont)


Metaphase: The meiotic spindle move towards the center and get arranged with: Centrioles on each pole Microtubules originate from centrioles Equatorial plate is formed Homologous Chromosomes allign on the equatorial plate

PHASES OF MEIOSIS l (cont)


Anaphase: Homologous chromosomes separate Each chromosome have two chromatids Assortment of chromosomes is random Microtubules contract and pull the chromosomes towards respective poles Telophase: Nucleoli and nuclear envelope reappear Now each chromosome is double structure (having two chromatids) The two daughter cells formed will have haploid(n) number of chromosomes which is half the number of parent chromosome.

MEIOSIS ll
This phase of meiosis is similar to mitosis in the following respects: Each of the two daughter cells formed will divide into two cells identical to the parent cells Chromosome number is haploid (n) Karyokinesis is followed by cytokinesis