The Third Republic

Annaliza Avanzado Gando

Birth of a Republic
• First Republic: Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo ( 1899-1901) • Second Philippine Republic: President Laurel ( 1942-1945) • Third Philippine Republic: July 4, 1946 • Presidents: – Manuel A. Roxas( 1946-48) – Elpidio Quirino ( 1948-53) – Ramon Magsaysay ( 1954-57) – Carlos P. Garcia ( 1958-61) – Diosdado Macapagal ( 1962-65) – Ferdinand E. Marcos (1966-86)

Problems of the new Republic
1. Reconstruction. Government buildings and records. Schools, factories, roads, private house and property. 2. Poor Government and poor people. No money in the national treasury, millions of jobless and homeless Filipinos. 3. Peace and order. Criminals, rebels, Huks terrorized cities and countryside. 4. Moral and spiritual decline. Poor moral and spiritual values, crimes, vices, illegal activities, prostitution , juvenile delinquents.

Subic Naval base). • Pro-American policy. • Law 70/30 share of rice harvest to improve conditions of poor farmers in the provinces. • Made many treaties with the US on special relations. Clark Air base. The Amendment gave American the right to develop our natural resources and public utilities. • Military Bases ( Camp John Hay. military bases and on economic aid. • Parity Amendment (1947).Roxas Administration • He died early during his administration (1948). American property on Philippine soil. ( telephone company.) • Parity Rights ended in the 1973 constitution. mining companies etc. .

terrorized and took over parts of the country. killed even Ms. Quezon. • He gave special radio talks like Pres. . • Huks or Red communists nearly brought the government down.Quirino Administration • He continued policies of President Roxas. • Rural banks in the provinces were started. Aurora Quezon and her party on their way to Baler.

He made presidency closer to the common tao. Improved barangay conditions by building artesian wells. First president to wear Barong Tagalog instead of Western coat and tie. Made surprise visits to govt. Quirino who stop the communist and became popular with the masses.Magsaysay Administration • Former Defense secretary under Pres. Huk Supremo who surrendered to him. Magsaysay was called “Savior of Democracy”. Magsasay is our guy. offices to check on employees. • • • • • • He saved democracy by stopping Luis Taruc. .

• Japan began to pay the 800 million war reparation. • Free trade with US was extended until 1974. Magsaysay died early when his plane crashed at Mt. • Philippine economic conditions improved and we were ahead of other Asian countries. • SEATO – Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 1954 international conference was hosted at Manila . . • Philippines enjoyed good relations with foreign countries. Manunggal in Cebu. This was a military organization of anticommunist countries in Southeast Asia.Magsaysay Administration • He also spoke in Tagalog and patronized Philippine products. • Pres.

Change the date of Phil. traffic signs and typhoon names. Indonesia and Phils. stamps. He claimed North Borneo as part of Philippine Territory. Independence Day from July 4th to June 12th.Macapagal Administration • • 5th President who promised a new era for the Philippines. He used the national language in passports. closer. He helped start MAPHILINDO – a group to bring Malaysia. • • • • . He asked Congress to pass the first land reform law in 1963.

and Film Center in Manila. . government buildings and irrigation systems. schoolhouses. • First and only president to declare martial law. • First president to be ousted in a bloodless revolution called “People Power of 1986” • “This nation can be great again!” • Built the most number of roads and bridges . Cultural Center. • Example: San Juanico bridge. Philippine International convention Center(PICC). Folk Arts Theatre. PanPhilippine Highway from Aparri to Jolo.Marcos Administration • 6th and the longest serving President of the third Republic (1966-86).

Film Center CCP PICC .

• Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit the Philippines. • People voted for a new constitutional convention ( con-com) to draft the new constitution. He borrowed billions of dollars from foreign banks and foreign government.( 1970) . They were gifted young experts. • Filipinos went to Vietnam War as engineers and medical helpers.Marcos Administration • “Technocrats” were hired by Marcos to help run the economy. • He was the only president who won his 2nd term in office.

 He does not have to share power with other officials.The Marcos Dictatorship ( 1972-1986) • Marcos was the 2nd President who was a dictator.  He controls the government and can rule or decide on anything or against anyone. .  Nobody in the country is higher than he is. • Dictator: is a ruler who has total power.  He can appoint or change any official in the government or military.  His word is the law and he can make decrees.  A dictatorship is the opposite of democracy.

• September 21.Martial Law declared. • Martial law: is a military junta ( group of military officers) who rules the country. • Proclamation 1081: Law placing the entire Philippines under Martial Law. Philippine democracy died. . • Philippine martial law was different for there was no military leader but President Marcos. 1972.

.Changes under Martial Law • New Constitution • Death of democracy • Reorganization of government • Control by the Marcos family and cronies. and • Stronger military power.

Marcos can ignore it and be above the law. 1973. 1976. • Referendum was organized at barangay assemblies to approve the constitution. • Oral approval of constitution was made Jan. 1973 a new constitution was signed by President Marcos. • Pres. .1973 constitution • Con-com finished their work November 30. • 95% of voters approved of the Constitution. 10-15. 1972. • Voters include children aged 15 years old and above. • January 17. 1981 and 1984). • 22 Amendments to this constitution were made during Marcos dictatorship ( 1973.

Ban on public meetings..Death of Democracy. • Closing down of all newspapers. radio and television stations. Government control of all public utilities and important industries. Iligan Steel Mill etc. printing presses. Ban on Private weapon. student demonstrations. ( PLDT. labor strikes.000 Marcos opponents and protesters against government. • • • • • . They are only allowed to reopen if they agreed to censorship. Manila Hotel. Meralco. Torture and murder of political prisoners. • Arrest and detention (imprisonment) of 50.) Travel ban abroad.

. Barrios were changed to barangays. • Rubberstamp parliament was installed. • Country was divided into 13 administrative regions ( Region 1-Region XII). • Local government units were reorganized. • Marcos became President and Prime Minister of the Philippines. (Batasang Pambansa). • Members were arrested.Government Reorganization • Marcos closed down Congress – Lawmaking body at the time.

Control by Marcos Family and Cronies • Family and friends were given important positions n government. Imelda Marcos was given several positions in government including Governor of Metro Manila. • He took care of many business friends “cronies”. . Minister of Human Settlements. • Mrs.

Ver. • Members of the military abused power.) • Maj.000 to 250. • RAM ( Reform the Armed Forces Movement) wanted to sopped abuses in the military and helped toppled the Marcos dictatorship. • Marcos created special military courts to try even civilians.000 men from (19721976). Gen. a close aide. headed the powerful (NISA) National Intelligence and Security Agency. Senator Aquino was tried by such courts that he protested the unfair trial. . • Military increased four times in size from 60. • Military got the highest share of government budget allocation for the first time.Strong Military Power. Fabian C. became corrupt and got rich illegally.

Marcos retain his strong power.The Fourth Republic. Opposition party boycotted the campaign and elections. 1981 Martial law was ended. 17. • Marcos became the only president of the Fourth Philippine Republic. 1981 – First presidential elections were held after martial law. • June 16. This was still under his dictatorship. • Jan. . • Marcos won under the KBL Party ( Kilusang Bagong Lipunan).

1983. • After his funeral on August 31. the widow led some of the demonstrations.Aquino Assassination • August 21. • Philippines and the world was shocked by the brutality of the killings. shirts and dropping yellow confetti. . • Corazon Aquino. Ninoy Aquino was assassinated upon his return. 1983 demonstrations rocked the land with protesters wearing yellow ribbons.

Both sides claimed they won. Sobra Na.  Most confusing election.People Power Revolution and Democracy Again • • Special Snap Election was called on Feb. • • . KBL party slogan “Marcos Pa Rin” ( Marcos – Tolentino tandem) Opposition slogan “Tama na. 1986.  Most expensive and dirtiest election in our history. Government used guns.  Most Filipinos honestly voted without bribe nor were scared. 7. Palitan na” ( Aquino-Laurel tandem) Historic election  First time for a woman to run and won the presidency. goons and gold to buy and scare voters.

Marcos. prayerful and successful revolution to bring back democracy in the Philippines. . Marcos to resign for the good of the country. 1986. • Camp Aguinaldo. It was a bloodless revolution. EDSA. Fidel Ramos called a press conference to announce they no longer supported Pres.  They also ask for support and protection from the people against troops loyal to Marcos.  They admitted Mrs. Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile and Deputy Chief of Staff Lt. Filipinos united in a peaceful. Gen.  They asked Pres.People Power Revolution • February 22-25. Aquino’s winning the election and the government cheated.

His family lived in exile in Honolulu. his family and some friends left the country. Hawaii. • Government tanks and trucks came to arrest the rebels only to be softened by the show of love and kindness by the people.People Power Revolution • Political and religious leaders inspired people to go to EDSA and formed human barricades. . 25. Marcos. • Feb.

It peacefully ousted a dictator and brought back a democratic government . sacrifices and faith of the Filipino people won the admiration of the whole world. The courage . 4. and 3. Other Asians were inspired by the Philippine example to fight and won political reforms in their own countries. 2. .The Importance of People Power Revolution. • Significance includes: 1. It showed that God answers the united prayers of Christians and made a miracle in our country.

US. etc. 1986. her sincerity moved the audience to applaud her many times and eventually gave us $200million dollar in aid. Aquino was inaugurated as President at Club Filipino. 25.The Aquino Government • Feb. appointed new Cabinet officials. Japan. • She restored democracy.) • She gave a speech before the US Congress Sept. . 18. Indonesia. • She visited other countries and won new aids and investments for the Philippines ( Singapore. Greenhills and became the first woman president of the Philippines. 1986 : President Corazon C. set free political prisoners and proclaimed a temporary “Freedom Constitution”.

freedom and justice in the Philippines. • Partial recovery of the big sums of money stolen by Marcos. • Easier credit terms and better conditions for repayment of out national debt. .Achievements of the Aquino Government • Return of Democracy. • Stability of government despite six successive military coups led by Honasan and Noble. his family and cronies.

• Natural calamities included the Baguio and Central Luzon earthquake (July. 1990). 1990. 199091. 1991 . Ormoc floods and typhoon Uring in Nov. • Passed best Agrarian reform Law. Typhoon Ruping Nov.Achievements of the Aquino Government • Pushed back of Communist rebels and arrest of many top leaders. • Improved image of the Philippines • Mobilized international aid for victims of calamities esp. Pinatubo June 1991. Eruption of Mt.

First Protestant President • • May 11. all official and volunteer organization personnel involved in the election. US for the first time had little influence on the results. for the first time. • • • • . took over command of the of the entire AFP. COMELEC Chairman Monsod: became the most powerful man during that election. 1992 : First General Elections under the 1986 Constitution was held.000 post from presidency down to municipal councilors. the police. 80. President Aquino left her position and obeyed the constitution by not running again. COMELEC.000 candidates ran for the 17.

. Ramos was inaugurated 12th President. 1992: Fidel V.Fidel Valdez Ramos • June 30. • First Protestant President.

Gringo Honasan. • Philippines became one of the new tiger economies of Asia. • Holding the 4th APEC (Asia pacific Economic Cooperation) . • Democracy in the Philippines was assured by peaceful transition of power. • Government Amnesty for rebel military officers led by Col. • Settlement of 30-year communist insurgency and Muslim separatist movements.Achievements of Ramos Administration • Philippines 2000 Policy: aimed to make the Philippines a newly industrialized country by year 2000.

• End of IMF assistance (International Monetary Fund) by March 1998. private armed group and terrorists. He became the most travelled President. • Dismantlement of monopolies and putting key industries to private hands. • Govt. • Creation of national Centennial Commission.Achievements of Ramos Administration • Generating $20billion worth of investments with numerous foreign trips abroad. intensified operation against organized crimes. • Passage of “Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipino Act of 1995” .

• First Lady Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo won by a huge majority. • “Erap Para sa Mahirap” was his slogan. • He was ousted by People Power II.Centennial President • President Joseph Ejercito Estrada won by plurality of votes (30%) over numerous candidates. • His main concern was to alleviate poverty and to take a firm action against corruption. .

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