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The Third Republic

Annaliza Avanzado Gando

Birth of a Republic
First Republic: Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo ( 1899-1901) Second Philippine Republic: President Laurel ( 1942-1945) Third Philippine Republic: July 4, 1946 Presidents: Manuel A. Roxas( 1946-48) Elpidio Quirino ( 1948-53) Ramon Magsaysay ( 1954-57) Carlos P. Garcia ( 1958-61) Diosdado Macapagal ( 1962-65) Ferdinand E. Marcos (1966-86)

Problems of the new Republic

1. Reconstruction. Government buildings and records. Schools, factories, roads, private house and property. 2. Poor Government and poor people. No money in the national treasury, millions of jobless and homeless Filipinos. 3. Peace and order. Criminals, rebels, Huks terrorized cities and countryside. 4. Moral and spiritual decline. Poor moral and spiritual values, crimes, vices, illegal activities, prostitution , juvenile delinquents.

Roxas Administration
He died early during his administration (1948). Pro-American policy. Made many treaties with the US on special relations, military bases and on economic aid. Parity Amendment (1947). The Amendment gave American the right to develop our natural resources and public utilities. ( telephone company, mining companies etc.) Parity Rights ended in the 1973 constitution. Military Bases ( Camp John Hay, Clark Air base, Subic Naval base). American property on Philippine soil. Law 70/30 share of rice harvest to improve conditions of poor farmers in the provinces.

Quirino Administration
He continued policies of President Roxas. He gave special radio talks like Pres. Quezon. Rural banks in the provinces were started. Huks or Red communists nearly brought the government down, terrorized and took over parts of the country, killed even Ms. Aurora Quezon and her party on their way to Baler.

Magsaysay Administration
Former Defense secretary under Pres. Quirino who stop the communist and became popular with the masses.

He saved democracy by stopping Luis Taruc, Huk Supremo who surrendered to him.
Magsaysay was called Savior of Democracy. Magsasay is our guy. He made presidency closer to the common tao. Made surprise visits to govt. offices to check on employees. Improved barangay conditions by building artesian wells. First president to wear Barong Tagalog instead of Western coat and tie.

Magsaysay Administration
He also spoke in Tagalog and patronized Philippine products. Philippines enjoyed good relations with foreign countries. SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 1954 international conference was hosted at Manila . This was a military organization of anticommunist countries in Southeast Asia. Japan began to pay the 800 million war reparation. Free trade with US was extended until 1974. Philippine economic conditions improved and we were ahead of other Asian countries. Pres. Magsaysay died early when his plane crashed at Mt. Manunggal in Cebu.

Macapagal Administration
5th President who promised a new era for the Philippines. He used the national language in passports, stamps, traffic signs and typhoon names. Change the date of Phil. Independence Day from July 4th to June 12th. He claimed North Borneo as part of Philippine Territory. He helped start MAPHILINDO a group to bring Malaysia, Indonesia and Phils. closer. He asked Congress to pass the first land reform law in 1963.

Marcos Administration
6th and the longest serving President of the third Republic (1966-86). First and only president to declare martial law. First president to be ousted in a bloodless revolution called People Power of 1986 This nation can be great again! Built the most number of roads and bridges , schoolhouses, government buildings and irrigation systems. Example: San Juanico bridge, PanPhilippine Highway from Aparri to Jolo, Cultural Center, Philippine International convention Center(PICC), Folk Arts Theatre, and Film Center in Manila.

Film Center



Marcos Administration
Technocrats were hired by Marcos to help run the economy. They were gifted young experts. He borrowed billions of dollars from foreign banks and foreign government. Filipinos went to Vietnam War as engineers and medical helpers.

He was the only president who won his 2nd term in office.
Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit the Philippines. People voted for a new constitutional convention ( con-com) to draft the new constitution.( 1970)

The Marcos Dictatorship ( 1972-1986)

Marcos was the 2nd President who was a dictator. Dictator: is a ruler who has total power. He controls the government and can rule or decide on anything or against anyone. Nobody in the country is higher than he is. He does not have to share power with other officials. He can appoint or change any official in the government or military. His word is the law and he can make decrees. A dictatorship is the opposite of democracy.

Martial Law declared.

September 21, 1972. Philippine democracy died. Proclamation 1081: Law placing the entire Philippines under Martial Law. Martial law: is a military junta ( group of military officers) who rules the country. Philippine martial law was different for there was no military leader but President Marcos.

Changes under Martial Law

New Constitution

Death of democracy
Reorganization of government Control by the Marcos family and cronies; and

Stronger military power.

1973 constitution
Con-com finished their work November 30, 1972. Referendum was organized at barangay assemblies to approve the constitution. Voters include children aged 15 years old and above. Oral approval of constitution was made Jan. 10-15, 1973. 95% of voters approved of the Constitution. January 17, 1973 a new constitution was signed by President Marcos. 22 Amendments to this constitution were made during Marcos dictatorship ( 1973, 1976, 1981 and 1984). Pres. Marcos can ignore it and be above the law.

Death of Democracy.
Arrest and detention (imprisonment) of 50,000 Marcos opponents and protesters against government.

Closing down of all newspapers, radio and television stations, printing presses. They are only allowed to reopen if they agreed to censorship.
Government control of all public utilities and important industries.. ( PLDT, Meralco, Manila Hotel, Iligan Steel Mill etc.) Travel ban abroad. Ban on public meetings, student demonstrations, labor strikes. Ban on Private weapon. Torture and murder of political prisoners.

Government Reorganization
Marcos closed down Congress Lawmaking body at the time. Members were arrested. Rubberstamp parliament was installed. (Batasang Pambansa). Local government units were reorganized. Barrios were changed to barangays. Country was divided into 13 administrative regions ( Region 1-Region XII). Marcos became President and Prime Minister of the Philippines.

Control by Marcos Family and Cronies

Family and friends were given important positions n government. He took care of many business friends cronies. Mrs. Imelda Marcos was given several positions in government including Governor of Metro Manila, Minister of Human Settlements.

Strong Military Power.

Marcos created special military courts to try even civilians. Senator Aquino was tried by such courts that he protested the unfair trial.) Maj. Gen. Fabian C. Ver, a close aide, headed the powerful (NISA) National Intelligence and Security Agency. Military got the highest share of government budget allocation for the first time. Military increased four times in size from 60,000 to 250,000 men from (19721976). Members of the military abused power, became corrupt and got rich illegally. RAM ( Reform the Armed Forces Movement) wanted to sopped abuses in the military and helped toppled the Marcos dictatorship.

The Fourth Republic.

Jan. 17, 1981 Martial law was ended. Marcos retain his strong power. June 16, 1981 First presidential elections were held after martial law.

Marcos won under the KBL Party ( Kilusang Bagong Lipunan). Opposition party boycotted the campaign and elections. Marcos became the only president of the Fourth Philippine Republic. This was still under his dictatorship.

Aquino Assassination
August 21, 1983. Ninoy Aquino was assassinated upon his return.

Philippines and the world was shocked by the brutality of the killings.
After his funeral on August 31, 1983 demonstrations rocked the land with protesters wearing yellow ribbons, shirts and dropping yellow confetti.

Corazon Aquino, the widow led some of the demonstrations.

People Power Revolution and Democracy Again

Special Snap Election was called on Feb. 7, 1986. KBL party slogan Marcos Pa Rin ( Marcos Tolentino tandem) Opposition slogan Tama na, Sobra Na, Palitan na ( Aquino-Laurel tandem) Historic election First time for a woman to run and won the presidency. Most expensive and dirtiest election in our history. Government used guns, goons and gold to buy and scare voters. Most Filipinos honestly voted without bribe nor were scared. Most confusing election. Both sides claimed they won.

People Power Revolution

February 22-25, 1986. Filipinos united in a peaceful, prayerful and successful revolution to bring back democracy in the Philippines. It was a bloodless revolution. Camp Aguinaldo, EDSA. Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile and Deputy Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Fidel Ramos called a press conference to announce they no longer supported Pres. Marcos.
They admitted Mrs. Aquinos winning the election and the government cheated. They asked Pres. Marcos to resign for the good of the country. They also ask for support and protection from the people against troops loyal to Marcos.

People Power Revolution

Political and religious leaders inspired people to go to EDSA and formed human barricades. Government tanks and trucks came to arrest the rebels only to be softened by the show of love and kindness by the people. Feb. 25, Marcos, his family and some friends left the country. His family lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii.

The Importance of People Power Revolution.

Significance includes: 1. The courage , sacrifices and faith of the Filipino people won the admiration of the whole world. 2. It peacefully ousted a dictator and brought back a democratic government ; Other Asians were inspired by the Philippine example to fight and won political reforms in their own countries; and



It showed that God answers the united prayers of Christians and made a miracle in our country.

The Aquino Government

Feb. 25, 1986 : President Corazon C. Aquino was inaugurated as President at Club Filipino, Greenhills and became the first woman president of the Philippines. She restored democracy, appointed new Cabinet officials, set free political prisoners and proclaimed a temporary Freedom Constitution.

She visited other countries and won new aids and investments for the Philippines ( Singapore, Indonesia, Japan, US, etc.) She gave a speech before the US Congress Sept. 18, 1986. her sincerity moved the audience to applaud her many times and eventually gave us $200million dollar in aid.

Achievements of the Aquino Government

Return of Democracy, freedom and justice in the Philippines. Partial recovery of the big sums of money stolen by Marcos, his family and cronies.

Stability of government despite six successive military coups led by Honasan and Noble. Easier credit terms and better conditions for repayment of out national debt.

Achievements of the Aquino Government

Pushed back of Communist rebels and arrest of many top leaders. Passed best Agrarian reform Law. Improved image of the Philippines Mobilized international aid for victims of calamities esp. 199091. Natural calamities included the Baguio and Central Luzon earthquake (July, 1990), Typhoon Ruping Nov. 1990, Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo June 1991, Ormoc floods and typhoon Uring in Nov. 1991

First Protestant President

May 11, 1992 : First General Elections under the 1986 Constitution was held. 80,000 candidates ran for the 17,000 post from presidency down to municipal councilors. US for the first time had little influence on the results. COMELEC, for the first time, took over command of the of the entire AFP, the police, all official and volunteer organization personnel involved in the election. COMELEC Chairman Monsod: became the most powerful man during that election. President Aquino left her position and obeyed the constitution by not running again.

Fidel Valdez Ramos

June 30, 1992: Fidel V. Ramos was inaugurated 12th President. First Protestant President.

Achievements of Ramos Administration

Philippines 2000 Policy: aimed to make the Philippines a newly industrialized country by year 2000. Philippines became one of the new tiger economies of Asia. Democracy in the Philippines was assured by peaceful transition of power. Settlement of 30-year communist insurgency and Muslim separatist movements. Government Amnesty for rebel military officers led by Col. Gringo Honasan. Holding the 4th APEC (Asia pacific Economic Cooperation)

Achievements of Ramos Administration

Generating $20billion worth of investments with numerous foreign trips abroad. He became the most travelled President. Dismantlement of monopolies and putting key industries to private hands. End of IMF assistance (International Monetary Fund) by March 1998. Govt. intensified operation against organized crimes, private armed group and terrorists. Creation of national Centennial Commission. Passage of Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipino Act of 1995

Centennial President
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada won by plurality of votes (30%) over numerous candidates. First Lady Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo won by a huge majority. Erap Para sa Mahirap was his slogan. His main concern was to alleviate poverty and to take a firm action against corruption. He was ousted by People Power II.