Guided by: Mrs.Mridula Reghunathan

Presented by: AYSWARYA B(551) ANSHAD ASHRAF(510) S7 ECE

 A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gasses or liquids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area.  A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed.  Pressure sensors can alternatively be called pressure transducers, pressure transmitters, pressure senders, pressure indicators and piezometers, manometers, among other names.



The great majority of pressure sensors are “composite sensors” 6/17/2013 3 . Low sensitivity and poor performance.very low cost. Only advantage .Pressure Sensors • • • • Not easy to measure pressure directly from its action on the properties of a particular material.

G ~ 2 silicon semiconductor gauges higher sensitivity. G ~ 200 G R / R l / l 6/17/2013 4 .Strain gauge type • • • Sensitivity of the sensor or Gauge factor. For metal wire gauges (constantan).

 Both systems are forms of active sensing But less energy efficient 6/17/2013 5 .  Vision based systems are limited by turbidity of the sea water.  Sonar suffers from multipath propagation issues in the cluttered seabed environment.A Flexible Underwater Pressure Sensor Array – Why ??? The Automated Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) uses sonar and vision-based systems.

due to creep. Consists of a strain-concentrating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diaphragm and a resistive strain gauge made of a conductive carbon-black-PDMS composite. 6/17/2013 6 . Exhibit a 0. Measurement has a repeatability of 22% of the peak amplitude of the pressure waveform.5 Pa pressure resolution.0014 fractional resistance change per 100 Pa.A flexible sensor array transduces underwater pressure variations produced by moving objects and surface waves. achieving a high 1.

6/17/2013 7 . but sensor array using a conductive elastomer have a high 1. The other have all these properties.5-Pa pressure resolution.Comparison between silicon pressure sensors based on MEMS and an elastomer material set  First one is limited in their spatial resolution.  First one does not exhibit the flexibility or chemical robustness required for use as an artificial lateral line and must be protected from the water with a parylene coating.

 Consists of individual sensors arranged in a 1-D strip.  The array’s flexibility allows it to be mounted along the curved hull of an AUV. 6/17/2013 8 .  A conductive elastomer composite made of PDMS doped with carbon black nanoparticles is used as the resistive strain gauge.A Flexible Underwater Pressure Sensor Array using a Conductive Elastomer Strain Gauge – What ??? PDMS is used for the substrate and the diaphragm.

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A Flexible Underwater Pressure Sensor Array – Use ???  It can transduce tiny underwater pressure variations on the order of 10 Pa produced by relative motion between objects and the water surrounding the AUV. 6/17/2013 10 . Information about the fluid flow provided by the array enables passive detection of underwater obstructions or targets.  Can be used to enhance the AUV’s propulsive efficiency and maneuverability.  Exhibit a high pressure resolution. flexibility and underwater operating capability.

A Flexible Underwater Pressure Sensor ArrayDesign??? It Consists of four pressure sensing cells. Each cell in the array comprises four main components.  PDMS Substrate  Strain-Concentrating PDMS Diaphragm.  Pressure Equilibration Channel  Carbon Black PDMS Resistive Strain Gauge 6/17/2013 11 .

although surface properties are affected. PDMS substrate provide flexibility and water-proofing 6/17/2013 12 .e. liquid water can not diffuse deeply into PDMS.1.  While watervapour diffuses rapidly through PDMS. PDMS Substrate  flexible substrate for the pressure sensor array  it is widely used in MEMS and provides electrical insulation.  i.

 Linearity is improved by keeping the deflection smaller than the membrane thickness. 6/17/2013 13 .2. Strain-Concentrating PDMS Diaphragm internal cavity into a strain.  transduces a pressure difference between the environment and sensor’s  PDMS diaphragms will have a linear stress-strain response to dynamic (ac) signals.

Pressure Equilibration Channel  It has 2 by 1 mm cross-sectional area.3.  Allow the array to operate arbitrary water depth.  connects all four pressure sensor cavities to an external pressure reference. 6/17/2013 14 .

metal wiring is stiff and can not be routed onto the PDMS diaphragm.  A contact resistance Rcontact exists between the metal contact and the strain gauge resistor of interest Rgauge.4. Carbon Black PDMS Resistive Strain Gauge  The strain gauge material is a composite made of an elastomer doped with conductive filter particles. Additionally. 6/17/2013 15 . This creates an additional series resistance Rtap which reduces sensitivity.

alternatively known as a Kelvin structure. solves the contact resistance problem by measuring Rgauge alone. The four-point probe. Since. no voltage appears across the Rcontact and Rtap on the voltage terminal branches. without being affected by series resistances Rcontact or Rtap. no current passes through the voltage terminals. 6/17/2013 16 .  A constant current Itest is passed through the two current terminals while the voltage Vtest is measured across the two terminals.

alternatively known as a Kelvin structure. is shown. 6/17/2013 17 .The four-point probe.

6/17/2013 18 .  entire device is flash cured on a hot plate at 120◦C whilw filler particles are still uniformly dispersed.  Carbon black-PDMS composite-Ratio 1:6.FABRICATION  PDMS is cast into Al moulds to form cavity.  screen patterning technique-pattern the strain gauges and carbon black PDMS paste is spread over the screen  Glass slide is swept over the screen.  Finally additional pdms is used to seal the remaining exposed regions of starin gauges and wires. channel structure and the two sheets.

 The sensor output voltages.A Flexible Underwater Pressure Sensor Array using a Conductive Elastomer Strain Gauge – Characterization  It is dynamically characterized by applying small-amplitude pressure signals at several dc bias pressures up to 1 kPa. proportional to the strain gauge resistances Rgauge . Pgauge = I²src * Rgauge 6/17/2013 19 .  An estimate of power consumption of a single sensor is given by the power dissipated in Rgauge.

An estimate of power consumption of a entire array is. 6/17/2013 20 . Pgauge ≈ 10 µW Parray ≈ 162 µW If.2 to 32 kΩ Rarray ≈ 448 kΩ This shows that much power is lost due to contact resistances and current branch series resistances. Rgauge ≈ 3. Parray = I²src * Rtotal Here.

 Carbon Black Particles sinter together inside the elastomer matrix to form conductive chains which provide macroscopic conductivity to the carbon black PDMS composite.  A large tensile strain applied to the strain gauge creates fractures in the chain. the decrease in the resistance back to its initial value is slower because the fractured chains must rely on their structural stresses and Vander Waals forces to reconnect. resulting in an increase in strain gauge's resistance.  Upon removal of the strain. 6/17/2013 21 .

reducing the strain on the strain gauge.UNDERWATER TESTING…How it works?? • The motion in the surface of water due to some object. Thus. • In this pressure biasing scheme. higher external pressure corresponds to lower strain gauge resistance and a reduced output voltage. 6/17/2013 22 . leads to deflection in diaphragm outward if a positive bias pressure is applied to the cavity. external pressure acts to reduce the outward deflection of the diaphragm. allowing the strain gauges to operate in the tensile strain regime.

The period of the surface waves is 0. determined using the time elapsed during eight periods.67 s.5 Hz. This corresponds to a frequency f of 1. the velocity v of the waves is determined to be 6/17/2013 23 . the wave machine is used to generate sinusoidal surface waves which propagate across the pressure sensor array.• As diagrammed below. • The center-to-peak amplitude A of the surface waves was measured to be 4 mm.2 s between the waveforms of the sensors 1 & 4. Given plot shows array output in response to the surface waves. Based on the time offset ∆t = 0.

w = angular freq. ρ = Density of water. k = wave number. 6/17/2013 24 . Pd = Dynamic component of Pressure which decay exponentially with water depth since there is less flow farther away from the surface. complete expression for the pressure P that the sensor array will experience is given by The Where Ps = Static component of average underwater depth pressure. g = acceleration due to gravity. y = depth of sensor.Where D = Spacing between the centers of sensors 1 & 4.

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small changes in strains results in more reversible linear resistance changes due to bending of the carbon chains in diaphragms(motion in underwater).CONCLUSION • In this pressure sensor array. • This pressure sensor array utilizes the flexibility. 6/17/2013 26 . • high pressure sensitivity over a small range that is the basic requirement for artificial lateral line application. chemical robustness and waterproofing along with resolution required for use as an artificial lateral line without requiring the cost and processing complexity of silicon.

• D. J. M. W. Lee and Y. V. S. ‘A Flexible underwater pressure sensor Array using conductive elastomer strain gauge’. H. Lang. M. Yaul. Choi.REFERENCE • F. 6/17/2013 27 . • F. ‘A Novel pressur sensor with a PDMS diaphragm’. Bulovic. ‘A Flexible underwater pressure sensor Array for artificial lateral line applications’. Yaul.

THANK YOU 6/17/2013 28 .

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