Construction Technology -1

Suspended Ceilings
Suspended Ceilings ~ these can be defined as ceilings which are fixed to a framework suspended from main structure thus forming a void between the two components.

Suspended Ceilings
requirements of suspended ceilings are: 1. They should be easy to construct, repair, maintain and clean.

concealed services and/or light fittings.Suspended Ceilings 2. So designed that an adequate means of access is provided to the void space for the maintenance of the suspension system. .

. Provide any required sound and/or thermal insulation.Doors 3.

Suspended Ceilings 4. Provide any required acoustic control in terms of absorption and reverberation. .

Suspended Ceilings 5. Provide if required structural fire protection to structural steel beams supporting a concrete floor .

Suspended Ceilings 6. . Conform with the minimum requirements set out in the Building Regulations and in particular the regulations governing the restriction of spread of flame over surfaces of ceilings and the exceptions permitting the use of certain plastic materials.

Design to be based on a planning module preferably a dimensional coordinated system with a first preference module of 300mm .Suspended Ceilings 7.

Suspended Ceilings .

Paneled suspended ceilings 3. 2. Joint less suspended ceilings. Decorative and open suspended ceiling .Suspended Ceilings Classification of Suspended Ceiling 1.

The two common ways of construction are a plasterboard or expanded metal lathing soffit with hand applied plaster finish or a sprayed applied rendering with a cement base. . They may be selected to fulfill fire resistance requirements or to provide a robust form of suspended ceiling.Suspended Ceilings • Joint less Suspended Ceilings ~ these forms of suspended ceilings provide a continuous and joint less surface with the internal appearance of a conventional ceiling.

Suspended Ceilings .

Provision for maintenance access can be easily incorporated into most systems and layouts.Suspended Ceilings • Paneled Suspended Ceilings ~ these are the most popular form of suspended ceiling consisting of a suspended grid framework to which the ceiling covering is attached. . Generally paneled systems are easy to assemble and install using a water level or laser beam for initial and final leveling. The covering can be of a tile. Services such as luminaries can usually be incorporated within the system. board or strip format in a wide variety of materials with an exposed or concealed supporting framework. tray.

Suspended Ceilings .

Suspended Ceilings Decorative and Open Suspended Ceilings ~ these ceilings usually consist of an openwork grid or suspended shapes onto which the lights fixed at. Many of these ceilings are purpose designed and built as opposed to the proprietary systems associated with joint less and paneled suspended ceilings . above or below ceiling level can be trained thus creating a decorative and illuminated effect.

Suspended Ceilings .

Painting .

An economic method of surface protection to building materials and components.Painting Functions ~ the main functions of paint are to provide: 1. .

. An economic method of surface decoration to building materials and components.Painting Functions ~ the main functions of paint are to provide: 2.

Painting • Composition ~ the actual composition of any paint can be complex but the basic components are:- .

The first function of a paint medium is to provide a means of spreading the paint over the surface and at the same time acting as a binder to the pigment . drying oils. Binder ~ this is the liquid vehicle or medium which dries to form the surface film and can be composed of linseed oil.Painting 1. synthetic resins and water.

• Pigment ~ this provides the body, colour, durability and corrosion protection properties of the paint. White lead pigments are very durable and moisture resistant but are poisonous and their use is generally restricted to priming and undercoating paints. If a paint contains a lead pigment the fact must be stated on the container. The general pigment used in paint is titanium dioxide which is not poisonous and gives good obliteration of the undercoats

• Solvents and Thinners ~ these are materials which can be added to a paint to alter its viscosity.

Painting - Categories
• Oil Based paints … these are available in priming, undercoat and finishing grades. The latter can be obtained in a wide range of colours and finishes such as matt, semi-matt, eggshell, satin, gloss and enamel. Polyurethane paints have a good hardness and resistance to water and cleaning. Oil based paints are suitable for most applications if used in conjunction with correct primer and undercoat

quick drying and can be obtained with a washable finish and are suitable for most • applications .Painting-Categories Water Based Paints … most of these are called emulsion paints the various finishes available being obtained by adding to the water medium additives such as alkyd resin & polyvinyl acetate (PVA). Finishes include matt. Emulsion paints are easily applied. eggshell. semi-gloss and gloss.

.Supply Supply ~ paint is usually supplied in metal containers ranging from 250 milliliters to 5 liters capacity to the colour ranges recommended in BS 381C (colours for specific purposes) and BS4800 (paint colours for building purposes).Painting.

Preparation of the surface to receive the paint is of the utmost importance since poor preparation is one of the chief causes of paint failure.Painting . In new work the basic build-up of paint coats consists of: . The manufacturers specification and/or the recommendations of BS 6150 (painting of buildings) should be followed. dust and ensuring that the surface will provide an adequate key for the paint which is to be applied. The preparation consists basically of removing all dirt.Application Application ~ paint can be applied to almost any surface providing the surface preparation and sequence of paint coats are suitable. grease.

New timber should have the knots treated with a solution of shellac or other alcohol based resin called knotting prior to the application of the primer. .Painting 1. Priming Coats … these are used on unpainted surfaces to obtain the necessary adhesion and to inhibit corrosion of ferrous metals.

Painting 2. The primary function of an undercoat is to give the opacity and build-up necessary for the application of the finishing coat(s). . Undercoats … these are used on top of the primer after any defects have been made good with a suitable stopper or filler.

Finish … applied directly over the undercoating in one or more coats to impart the required colour and finish.Painting 3. .

Brush … the correct type. .Methods 1. To achieve a first class finish by means of brush application requires a high degree of skill.Painting. size and quality of brush such as those recommended in BS 2992 needs to be selected and used.

Painting. Spray … as with brush application a high degree of skill is required to achieve a good finish.Methods 2. Generally compressed air sprays or airless sprays are used for building works. .

Roller … simple and inexpensive method of quickly and cleanly applying a wide range of paints to flat and textured surfaces. Roller heads vary in size from 50 to 450mm wide with various covers such as sheepskin. . All paint applicators must be thoroughly cleaned after use. mohair and foamed polystyrene.Painting-Methods 3. synthetic pile fibers.

protection and decoration to give a finish which is easy to clean and maintain. dry and stable.Painting. To achieve these objectives the surface preparation and paint application must be adequate.Surface preparation Painting ~ the main objectives of applying coats of paint to a surface are preservation. The preparation of new and previously painted surfaces should ensure that prior to painting the surface is smooth. clean. .

Painting. . Careful treatment of knots is essential either by sealing with two coats of knotting or in extreme cases cutting out the knot and replacing with sound timber. The stopping and filling of cracks and fixing holes with putty or an appropriate filler should be carried out after the application of the priming coat. The timber surface should be prepared using an abrasive paper to produce a smooth surface brushed and wiped free of dust and any grease removed with a suitable spirit.Surface Preparation Basic Surface Preparation Techniques ~ Timber … to ensure a good adhesion of the paint film all timber should have a moisture content of less than 18%. Each coat of paint must be allowed to dry hard and be rubbed down with a fine abrasive paper before applying the next coat.

Surface Preparation Basic Surface Preparation Techniques ~ Timber …. when the paint is in a poor condition it will be necessary to remove completely the layers of paint and then prepare the surface as described above for new timber. On previously painted surfaces if the paint is in a reasonable condition the surface will only require cleaning and rubbing down before repainting.Painting. .

.Surface Preparation Building Boards … most of these boards require no special preparation except for the application of a sealer as specified by the manufacturer.Painting.

grease and wax.Surface Preparation Iron and Steel … good preparation is the key to painting iron and steel successfully and this will include removing all rust. flame cleaning and chemical processes and any of these processes are often carried out in the steel fabrication works prior to shop applied priming. oil.Painting. . using mechanical means such as shot blasting. This can be achieved by wire brushing. mill scale.

Plaster which contains lime can be alkaline and such • surfaces should be treated with an alkali resistant primer when the • surface is dry before applying the final coats of paint. smooth and free of • defects before applying any coats of paint especially when using • gloss paints. .Best Templates 4 Free • Plaster … the essential requirement of the preparation is to ensure • that the plaster surface is perfectly dry.

. Most paint defects are visual and therefore an accurate diagnosis of the cause must be established before any remedial treatment is undertaken. The general remedy is to remove all the affected paint and carry out the correct preparation of the surface before applying in the correct manner new coats of paint. poor application of the paint and/or chemical reactions.Painting.Defects Paint Defects ~ these may be due to poor or incorrect preparation of the surface.

Remedy is to remove affected paint surface and repaint with correct type of overcoat paint. usually caused by applying an incorrect paint over another. .Painting. Bleeding … staining and disruption of the paint surface by chemical action.Defects 1.

Best Templates 4 Free • 2. . the subsequent expansion causing • the defect. Remedy is to remove all the coats of paint and • ensure that the surface is dry before repainting. Blistering … usually caused by poor presentation allowing resin • or moisture to be entrapped.

Defects 3. Remedy is to remove affected paint and repaint. . It can be avoided by not painting under these conditions. Blooming … mistiness usually on high gloss or varnished surfaces due to the presence of moisture during application.Painting.

Remedy is to remove paint if necessary.Defects 4.Painting. . Chalking … powdering of the paint surface due to natural ageing or the use of poor quality paint. prepare surface and repair colour and finish.

Cracking and Crazing … usually due to unequal elasticity of • successive coats of paint. .Best Templates 4 Free • 5. Remedy is to remove affected paint • and repaint with compatible coats of paint.

Defects 6. Flaking and Peeling … can be due to poor adhesion. Remedy is to remove defective paint. presence of moisture. .Painting. painting over unclean areas or poor preparation. prepare surface and Repaint.

Remedy is to apply further coats of paint to obtain a satisfactory surface. incorrect thinning or the use of the wrong colour.Painting. could be the result of poor application.Defects 7. . Grinning … due to poor opacity of paint film allowing paint coat below or background to show through.

.Defects 8. Saponification … formation of soap from alkali present in or on surface painted.Painting. Remedy is to remove the paint films and seal the alkaline surface before repainting. The paint is ultimately destroyed and a brown liquid appears on the surface.

Builders Plant .

Builders Plant General Considerations ~ items of builders plant ranging from small hand held power tools to larger pieces of plant such as mechanical excavators and tower cranes can be considered for use for one or more of the following reasons : .

Builders Plant 1. Increased production .

Reduction in overall construction costs .Builders Plant 2.

Carry out activities which cannot be carried out by the traditional manual methods in the context of economics.Builders Plant 3. .

.Builders Plant 4. Eliminate heavy manual work thus reducing fatigue and as a consequence increasing productivity.

Builders Plant 5. Replacing labour where there is a shortage of personnel with the necessary skills. .

Builders Plant 6. Maintain the high standards required particularly in the context of structural engineering works. .

Builders Plant . hard standings. foundations and anchorages may have to be provided at a cost which is in excess of the savings made by using the plant. .Selection  Economic Considerations ~ the introduction of plant does not always result in economic savings since extra temporary site works such as roadwork's.

Builders Plant .Selection  Economic Considerations ~ The site layout and circulation may have to be planned around plant positions and movements rather than around personnel and material movements and accommodation. .

Selection Economic Considerations ~ To be economic plant must be fully utilized and not left standing idle since plant.Builders Plant . will have to be paid for even if it is non-productive. . whether hired or owned.

daily and planned maintenance which needs to be carried out to avoid as far as practicable plant breakdowns which could disrupt the construction programme.Selection Economic Considerations ~ Full utilization of plant is usually considered to be in the region of 85% of on site time. thus making an allowance for routine. .Builders Plant .

.Selection Economic Considerations ~ Many pieces of plant work in conjunction with other items of plant such as excavators and their attendant haulage vehicles therefore a correct balance of such plant items must be obtained to achieve an economic result.Builders Plant .

Builders Plant. . preventive and planned maintenance tasks together with any running repairs which could be carried out on site.Maintenance Considerations Maintenance Considerations ~ on large contracts where a number of plant items are to be used it may be advantageous to employ a skilled mechanic to be on site to carry out all the necessary daily.

which are usually purchased. .Builders Plant Plant Costing ~ with the exception of small pieces of plant. items of plant can be bought or hired or where there are a number of similar items a combination of buying and hiring could be considered.

Builders Plant Plant Costing ~ The choice will be governed by economic factors and the possibility of using the plant on future sites thus enabling the costs to be apportioned over several contracts. .

Builders Plant Advantages of Hiring Plant:1. Plant can be hired for short periods. .

. Repairs and replacements are usually the responsibility of the hire company.Builders Plant Advantages of Hiring Plant:2.

Builders Plant Advantages of Hiring Plant:3. . Plant is returned to the hire company after use thus relieving the building contractor of the problem of disposal or finding more work for the plant to justify its purchase or retention.

fuel and oil included in the hire rate. Plant can be hired with the operator.Builders Plant Advantages of Hiring Plant:4. .

Plant availability is totally within the control of the contractor.Builders Plant Advantages of Buying Plant:1. .

Builders Plant Advantages of Buying Plant:2. Hourly cost of plant is generally less than hired plant. .

Builders Plant Advantages of Buying Plant:3. Owner has choice of costing method .

feedback information or published tables contained in manufacturer's literature or reliable . task efficiency of the machine. Data for the factors to be taken into consideration can be obtained from timed observations.Builders Plant – Out put Output and Cycle Times ~ all items of plant have optimum output and cycle times which can be used as a basis for estimating anticipated productivity taking into account the task involved. operator's efficiency and in the case of excavators the type of soil.

Builders Plant – Out put Output and Cycle Times ~ Data for the factors to be taken into consideration can be obtained from timed observations. feedback information or published tables contained in manufacturer's literature or reliable .

Thank You Senarath Bandara .

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