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By Sonia Aggarwal and Sophia Kalogeris
The United States imperialize the Philippines during the 1800’s, planning to use it as a base to get closer to China, and ended up making a much bigger impression. Over time, their rule over the Philippines started to shape the people and land that the US had taken over to become more Americanized and modern. This style of ruling, however, was very different from that of other imperialist countries. This style is what made the United States’ imperial rule so well known to our world today. The United States had reasoning behind their imperialist move to the Philippines, and their plan would be sought through until the end. The US wanted to be close to China so they could explore and access the land. Coincidentally, the Philippines are very close to China and create a great base for making trips to the country whenever needed. On the other hand, Japan decided to Imperialize because they wanted to enhance production, gain nationalism, and get raw materials and resources. This colonization of the US and many other countries created waves with the people there and sometimes did not create the most stable environments. The United Stated did a lot that made the Filipinos angry, and caused them to revolt. In the Philippines, Filipino's protests were smaller and weaker because of the lack of elites to run the protests.
They wanted a broader voice, however their lack of leadership and organized rebellion made for many unsuccessful movements. However, in places like Burma, their protests were larger and had more alliances to sustain pressure for independence. Another tactic the United States used to govern the Philippines was their influence on education in the country. The US built in good education opportunities in the Philippines so they could be more prepared for the work throughout the world. Whereas other countries like the Dutch, sent the highest class students to school in Europe, and lower class students could not go to school. In the Philippines, the US made it so that they could learn within their own country which made education convenient and accessible for everyone. One way that America’s imperialism in the Philippines differed from that of other countries is by the way that America gained its imperialism. To easily obtain rule over the Philippines, Americans said that the reason they wanted the Philippine Islands was to help and improve the Philippines and the way of life for the Filipinos whereas in other countries like the Dutch (in Indonesia), British (in Burma), and French (in Vietnam), the imperialist country openly ruled for their own benefits such as resources and land. Also, in the Philippines, there was a class of people who did not mind the American rule because of the positive change that they were bringing.
But, in countries like Indonesia, Burma, and Vietnam, most of the population did not want the imperialist country to rule. This is how the way America gained imperialism was different from that of other countries. Also, the way that America ruled as an imperialist country was different from how other imperialist countries ruled. This is because America tried to improve the Philippines by creating equality among separate classes and working with the Filipinos. But, the Dutch, British, and French tried to reform the native people of the countries they ruled over. America had even promised eventual and complete independence to the Filipinos when they ruled unlike the European imperialist countries, who ruled as a monarchy or dictatorship. The imperial rule of the United States over the Philippines created much tension and anger that would leave lasting impressions on both parties. The two opinionated nations did not always agree on laws or government or rights, and this started many uproars. However, the United States did provide decent education for the Filipinos which was unavailable to any other country at the time. Overall, the United States created good and bad action in the Philippines which resulted in a country fueled with the motivation to become independent and one day finally have a voice of their own.
Reasons Behind ImperialismUS
The main reason why America wanted the Philippine islands was because they are close to China. This would allow the U.S. to easily access and exploit China. This is a picture of a map of the American travel route from the Philippine Islands to China.
Reasons Behind Imperialism- World
Other countries were not as interested in establishing bases like the US was. Japan imperialized other nations because they wanted to enhance industrial production and accelerate nationalism. They also wanted to get raw materials and resources. This image depicts the unique reasoning behind the US imperializing Philippines, as they try to spread their philosophies to other nations.
Way Imperialism Was GainedUS
One way that America easily gained imperialism in the Philippine Islands was by saying that they wanted the Philippines so that they could improve the islands and the quality of life for the Filipinos.Americans said that they wanted to help the Filipinos and that ruling the Philippines was a "social mission". This is a cartoon that shows an American man clothing a Filipino boy, or making him civilized.
Way Imperialism Was Gained-World
Other imperialist countries in the world gained imperialism with force and dictatorship. They would openly rule over other lands for their own benefit and profits such as gaining land and resources. . This is a picture of British soldiers invading Burma before it came under their rule.
Way Imperialist Country Ruled-US
America ruled the Philippines by promising the Filipinos that they would get eventual independence. America said that once the Philippines were ready to transition to independence and rule themselves, they would give the Filipinos their independence. But, that never ended up happening and the Filipinos needed to fight for independence. This cartoon shows America crushing the leader of the independence movement,
Way Imperialist Country RuledWorld
Imperialist countries around the world ruled openly as dictators. They would often try to reform the natives instead of trying to help them and improve their way of life. In this picture, John Bull, who is often depicted as a character of imperialism, is an imperialist and dictator over all of the countries that Britain ruled over.
Influence of Imperialist on Education-US
Unlike many other imperialist countries, the United States built in good education opportunities in the Philippines. This education made the Filipinos more prepared for the work throughout the world. The image below depicts a crowded classroom of learning students at the University of the Philippines.
Influence of Imperialist on Education-World
Other countries like Britain placed only the highest class students in school. However, because they did not have their own schools, they often sent the students to other countries to learn. Usually lower class students could not go to school, which made many native citizens resentful of the imperial rule. This image shows a small class of British elite children that were in a British school in Burma.
Protests In Reaction To ImperialismUS
Filipinos protests were smaller and weaker because of the lack of elites to run the protests. They wanted a broader voice within existing barriers, and tried their best to make a significant movement in the Philippines. This image depicts the small and unprepared army of the Philippines. The men do not have proper uniforms and do not have a big enough group to make a significant impact.
Protests In Reaction To ImperialismWorld
Other nations around the world did not have such a hard time with their protests. In places like Burma, their protests were larger and had more alliances to sustain pressure for independence. Other places had more radical or political demands as oppose to the Filipinos demand to be heard. This image depicts a scene from the battle of Manilla, which may seem to show both sides to be completely prepared and organized, however, history shows that in battles like this one the Filipinos were very unorganized and seemed to be not fully trained for a formal battle.
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5. "Map: Dewey Sails to the Philippines". Map. Authentichistory. Accessed June 11 2013. http://www.authentichistory.com/18981913/4-imperialism/2-saw/2-philippines/
6. "No Defense for the British Empire". Drawing. SocialWorker, Accessed June 13, 2013. http://socialistworker.co.uk/art/8882/No+defence+for+the+British+empire 7. "Political Cartoon". Illustrated Cartoon. Punch. Accessed June 12, 2013. http://punch.photoshelter.com/gallery//G0000vKN2v8ZjQ.g/ 8. "Schools and Education, 1898". Photograph. Xtimeline. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=493911 9. "The Battle of Manila, February 1899". Postcard Painting. Boundless. Accessed June 12, 2013. https://www.boundless.com/ 10. "Today's Document: Following the Spanish-American War Tensions". Cartoon. Tumblr. Accessed June 11, 2013. http://todaysdocument.tumblr.com/post/42275416664/following-the-spanish-american-war-tensions
Boudreau, Vince, "America's Colonial Rule in the Philippines," in American Compared: American History in International Perspective, 1991.