How to Increase Walking and Cycling: Lessons from across the Globe

John Pucher, Rutgers University Ralph Buehler, Virginia Tech

Photo: Susan Handy

Photo: Ralph Buehler

Photo: Greg Raisman

Photo: Marie Demers

THANKS TO OUR HOST AND SPONSORS!

THANKS ALSO TO FRIENDS AND SUPPORTERS:

Advantages of Walking and Cycling:
• Economical: Affordable by everyone, requiring minimal costs for individuals and governments • Good for business: Generate retail sales and profits from tourism • No pollution: Clean and quiet • Energy-efficient: Use up calories we need to burn off from eating too much • Healthy: Many studies report on physical, social, mental health benefits • Fun: Getting out into the fresh air with family and friends

Walking 50

Cycling

Percent of trips by cycling and walking

40

Share of Trips by Cycling and Walking
10 9 2 3 8 4 4 9

26

30

18

20

1

1

2

10
1 0.5 3 5 11 11 11

22 16

22

21

22

22

23

24 16

25

0

Source: Pucher and Buehler, City Cycling, MIT Press, 2012

Bicycle Share of Work Commuters in the USA (2007) and Canada (2006)

Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Seinen, M., “Bicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and ReAssessment of Cycling Trends and Policies,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 45 (6), 2011, pp. 451-475.

City of Vancouver Leads North American Cities with its High Share of both Walk and Bike Trips

Walking & Cycling in the City of Vancouver % Change in # of Trips, 2008 to 2011

*Daily trips originating in City of Vancouver. The research and analysis is based on TransLink Trip diary Data and the opinions expressed do not represent the views of TransLink

City of Vancouver Walking Trends
Daily Walking Trips
• ~ 50,000 new walking trips in 2011 • Almost 20% increase in walk trips
from 2008 to 2011! Daily Walking Trips

• ~ 300,000 daily walking trips in 2011

2008
*Daily trips originating in City of Vancouver. The research and analysis is based on TransLink Trip diary Data and the opinions expressed do not represent the views of TransLink

2011

City of Vancouver Cycling Trends
Daily Cycling Trips
• Fastest growing transportation mode • ~ 67,000 daily cycling trips in 2011 • Over 40% increase in bike trips from
2008 to 2011! Daily Cycling Trips

• ~ 20,000 new cyclist trips in 2011

2008
*Daily trips originating in City of Vancouver. The research and analysis is based on TransLink Trip diary Data and the opinions expressed do not represent the views of TransLink

2011

Lots of Potential for Increased Walking and Cycling:
Many daily trips in American urban areas are short enough to walk or bike!
• ~27% of all trips in the U.S. were a mile or shorter in 2009 • ~41% of all trips were shorter than two miles

80
Walking Cycling

Share of Short Trips by Cycling and Walking
16

70

60 Percent of trips by cycling and walking

USA
50

GER

31

DK

NL

40 2 30 47 20 36 12 7 2 6 2.5km<4.5km 0<2.5km 0 14 1 2 18 9 2.5km<4.5km 4.5<6.5km 0<2.5km 13 4.5km-6.5km 24 18

29

35

39
24 25 10 3 2.5km<5km 0<2.5km 5<7.5km

10

4.5km-6.5km

Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

2.5km<4.5km

0<2.5km

Trip distance category

70%

Cycling

Walking

Women’s Share of Bike and Walk Trips in Europe and North America
60% 56% 55% 49% 49% 56% 56%
53%

60% 52%
Percent of trips by women

50%

40%

30%
30%

27% 25%

20%

10%

USA

UK

Canada

Denmark

Germany

Netherlands

Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

Photo Susan Handy

70 Walking
60

Cycling

Bike and Walk Share of Trips by Age Group
40

Percent of trips by foot and bike

50 40 2
30

15

23 10 10 9 7 7 30 31 22 17 19 19 18 13 13 13
30-39 40-49 50-59

32 20 14 14 15 18 21 15 15

25
21

22

2 20 3 10 0 15
5-15

2

1 1 31

0.8 0.8 0.7

32
0.5

24

20 20 21

24 23

28

19 21

11 12 10 9
10-19' 65 + 65 + 16-24 25-39 40-65 0-16 17-29 30-59 60-65 65+ 0-17 18-25 26-45 46-60 60-65 20-29

60-69

70-84

0-17

18-25

26-44

USA

UK

Germany

Denmark

Netherlands

Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Age Group Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

45-64

65 +

Cycling for ALL AGES

Foto by Marie Demers

Make Walking and Cycling Safe for Everyone !
•Especially important for the young, the old, for anyone with disabilities, for the timid or risk-averse •Women more sensitive to safety than men
•Safety of walking and cycling in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany helps explain high levels of walking and cycling there

20.0

Cylists killed per 100 million km cycled Cylists injured per 10 million km cycled Pedestrians killed per 100 million km walked Pedestrians injured per 10 million km walked

33.5*

18.0

Fatalitities and injuries per trip and per kilometer

16.0

14.0

13.7

12.0

10.0

8.0

Cycling and walking can be made very safe, as in the Netherlands and Denmark
5.7 5.5

9.7

6.0

4.7
4.0 2.3 2.0 1.1 0.0 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.6 2.4 1.9 3.3 3.6 3.3

NL

DK

GER

UK

USA

Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

160

140
Total cyclist fatalities relative to 1970 (=100)

120

Trends in Cyclist Fatalities
USA

100

80

UK Denmark Germany

60

Netherlands

40

20
Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

0
19 70 19 72 19 74 19 76 19 78 19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 20 08

120

Total pedestrian fatalities relative to 1970 (=100)

100

Trends in Pedestrian Fatalities
USA UK Denmark Germany Netherlands

80

60

40

20
Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

0
19 70 19 72 19 74 19 76 19 78 19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 20 08

Pedestrian Safety Comparison to other Cities

Vancouver among the safest cities for walking
Source: Walk to Work Trips, Employed Labour Force & Population Statistics; 2006, 2011 Canada Census (www.statcan.gc.ca); 2010 US Census (www.census.gov)

Cycling Safety Comparison to other Cities

Vancouver is the safest city for cycling

Source: Pucher J., Buehler R, “Analysis of Bicycling Trends and Policies in Large North American Cities: Lessons for New York”, University Transportation Research Centre, March 2011

Reversal in Public Policies in Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands in 1970s
• Pro-car policies in European cities in 1950s and 1960s caused huge decline in cycling and walking • Dramatic policy turn-around since 1970s to limit car use and promote cycling, walking, and public transport in Dutch, Danish, and German cities

Bridge in Freiburg BEFORE and AFTER reforms

1960s

Today

Typical residential street in Freiburg BEFORE traffic calming reforms

Typical residential street in Freiburg AFTER traffic calming reforms

Cathedral Square in Freiburg BEFORE transport and urban planning reforms

Cathedral Square in Freiburg AFTER transport and urban planning reforms

40

35

30

Rebound of Bike Share of Trips in German, Dutch, and Danish Cities
27

38 37 35

29

25 25 Percent of all trips

25

20

15 15 13 12 10 7 6 5 4 6 12 14

0 Nuremburg ('76-'12) Berlin ('92-'08) Cologne ('76-'09) Munich ('91-'11) Freiburg ('82-'12) Muenster ('82-'10) Amsterdam ('70-'10) Copenhagen ('98-'10)

Source: Pucher, Dill, and Handy, “Infrastructure, Programs, and Policies to Increase Bicycling,” Preventive Medicine, Jan 2010, Vol. 50, S.1, pp. S106-S125.

8.0

7.8

7.0

6.0

5.0

More and better cycling facilities have dramatically increased bike share of trips in cities without any tradition of cycling for daily travel
3.4 2.8

Percent of Trips

4.0

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.2 1.0 0.8

2.7

1.0

0.8 0.5

0.0 London ('03-'10) Barcelona ('05-'10) Paris ('01-'10) Bogota ('95-'10) Seville ('00-'12)

Source: Pucher, Dill, and Handy, “Infrastructure, Programs, and Policies to Increase Bicycling,” Preventive Medicine, Jan 2010, Vol. 50, S.1, pp. S106-S125.

Cycling in Sevilla, Spain increased more than 10-fold after these safe cycle tracks were installed

7.0

6.8

6.0

Boom in Cycling to Work in 14 Large US and Canadian Cities
Source: Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. City Cycling, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2012.
4.1 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.7 4.1

5.0

Bike Share of Regular Commutes

4.0

1990 (USA) / 1996 (Canada) 2011 (USA and Canada)
3.0
* 2011 figures for Canadian cities are preliminary estimates

*

2.6 2.4 2.4

2.0 1.5

1.8 1.6 1.5

1.7

1.1
1.0

0.9 0.6
0.3 0.3

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.9

1.0 0.8

1.0

1.1

0.0

How to Encourage More Cycling and Walking while Improving Safety
•Better cycling and walking facilities

•Integration of walk/bike with public transport
•Traffic calming of residential neighborhoods

•Mixed-use zoning and improved urban design
•Restrictions on motor vehicle use

•Traffic education and Safe Routes to School
•Traffic regulations and enforcement

Most European cities have extensive car-free districts ideal for walking and cycling

Lively, safe, pleasant car-free zone in central Copenhagen

Lively pedestrian zone in Québec City

Source: Marie Demers

Charlottesville, VA

Pedestrian Malls in USA

Boston, MA
Boulder, CO

Santa Monica, CA

College campuses are often car-free havens for walking

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Cycling is perfect for getting around college campuses such as here at UC Santa Barbara

Streets for people instead of cars!

Conversion of street to pedestrian zone in Santa Barbara

Source: Ralph Fertig

Source: Ralph Buehler

Car-free Broadway in New York City

Times Square Herald Square
Source: Ralph Buehler

High Line in New York City

Source: Ralph Buehler

…from an abandoned freight line to a popular promenade…
Source: Ralph Buehler

Long crosswalk without median refuge island

Good crosswalks are crucial for pedestrians

Superb crosswalk, narrower, well marked and protected

Photo: Bob Edmiston

How would you rate this sidewalk on Bellevue Avenue in Seattle?

All streets should come complete with safe facilities for pedestrians and cyclists

Source: City of Cambridge

Minuteman Trail north of Boston
Such mixed-use paths are common in North America

Bikeway in Muenster, Germany with separate walkways on both sides

Note exclusive cycle path in middle and completely separate pedestrian walkways on both sides

Separate bikeway and walkway facilities in Quebec City

Source: Transports Viables

Almost 100km of 2-way cycle tracks in Montreal

Separation from traffic via bollards and parked cars

Separation from traffic via concrete barriers

Photo: Peter Furth

Photo: Velo Quebec

Economic benefits of this cycle track exceed costs by over three-to-one!

Cycling has doubled in Sydney, Australia since installation of its cycle track network

This cycle track in Arkansas is sponsored by Walmart for employees to get to its headquarters office.

Photo: Seattle DOT

Photo: Seattle DOT

Bike lanes in Seattle

Photo: Seattle DOT

Photo: Seattle DOT

Photo: Paul Krueger

Photo: Nick Klein

New York

Vancouver

Buffered bike lanes offer some additional separation from motor vehicle traffic but without physical barriers

Advanced stop line for cyclists in Berlin

Photo by Jennifer Dill

Advanced stop line and bike box in Portland

Why Traffic Calming Saves Lives

Speed Speed kills! kills!

Source: World Health Organization (2008) and OECD Transport Research Centre (2006)

Traffic Calming in Freiburg, Germany
Cheap, easy, fast, and effective improvement in cycling and walking safety

This street block is a “Spielstrasse” with 7km/hr speed limit

These streets are, in effect, bike boulevards, neighborhood greenways, and local street bikeways
This street block is a “Spielstrasse” with 7km/hr speed limit

3,800 km of traffic-calmed streets in Berlin:
facilitating cycling and walking

7 km/hr speed limit

Shared streets: Typical traffic calming in new German suburbs

Safe and pleasant “Shared Street” at Harvard Square
Source: City of Cambridge

Foto by Peter Berkeley

Blockage of through car and truck traffic but convenient cut-through for cyclists and pedestrians

Photo: Transports Viables

Traffic calming in Quebec City and Montreal
Traffic Calming in Québec City

Cheap, easy, and very effective traffic diverters

Photo: Velo Quebec

Source: Transports Viables

Photo: Paul Krueger

Photo: Paul Krueger

Photo: Paul Krueger

152km of neighborhood greenways in Vancouver

Neighborhood Greenways in Seattle

Huge Expansion in the City of Vancouver’s Cycling Network from 1992 to 2012

Nice Ride in Minneapolis

Hubway Bikeshare in Cambridge, Boston, Somerville, and Brookline

Over 50 bike sharing systems in North America by end of 2013
Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC

Citi Bike in New York
• • • • Launched May 27, 2013 6,000 bikes 330 bike stations Over 20,000 annual members

Which is the cheaper and more sensible way to get exercise?

Photo: Alta Planning

27 bike corrals in San Francisco

Good bike parking benefits merchants

95 bike corrals in Portland

Traffic Education
•Improved motorist training, with much more emphasis on how to avoid endangering pedestrians and cyclists •Compulsory traffic safety lessons for all school children by the age of 10, with testing by traffic police on actual traffic test courses, to ensure safe and defensive walking and cycling by an early age (as in the Netherlands and Germany)

German traffic laws generally favor cyclists and pedestrians over motorists

Photos: Ralph Buehler

Cycling training and testing course in Berlin

Most German and Dutch children take cycling lessons by the 3rd or 4th grade and must pass a police-administered cycling safety test!

Photo: Warren Salomon

Bike path leads directly to school in NL

Photo: Fiona Campbell

After installation of this cycle track in Sydney, Australia, over a third of children now bike to school!

Children who bike or walk to school learn better:
• More attentive and able to concentrate • Advanced mental alertness by half a school year • More benefit for mental development than having breakfast and lunch
Source: Egelund et al. (2012). Study of over 20,000 school children

Safe Routes to Schools
Photos: Bike Texas

Good sidewalks and crosswalks crucial near schools

Photo: Bike Texas

Photo: John Pucher

Walking school bus

These kids are actually having fun and getting good exercise, too!

Somerstreets in Somerville

Source: City of Somerville

Over 100,000 participants at LA’s fourth annual CicLAvia in October 2012

Source: Ryan Snyder

CicLAvia: 9 miles of car-free streets in Los Angeles

Expansion of Open Streets (Ciclovias) in the Americas
(cities with at least two events per year)

Source: Sarmiento et al. (2013). Open Streets: A Healthy Epidemic. Bogota, Colombia: Universidad de los Andes. Financed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

WNBR in 74 cities in 2010

Photo: Don Miller

The Summer Solstice naked bike ride in Seattle can be fun as well, provided you have the right body!

Implementation Strategies
1. Publicize both individual and societal benefits 2. Ensure citizen participation at all stages of planning and implementation 3. Develop long-range bike plans; regularly update them 4. Implement controversial policies in stages, easiest first 5. Combine incentives for cycling and walking with disincentives for car use 6. Build alliances among ped/bike groups and with transit, environmentalists, public health, business leaders, politicians, and media 7. Coordinate ped/bike advocacy and planning through local, regional, and national organizations 8. Local political leadership is essential

New book with MIT Press
http://citycyclingbook.wordpress.com

About the authors:
http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/ http://ralphbu.wordpress.com

CONCLUSIONS
• Many economic, environmental, social, and health benefits of walking and cycling • Even in North America, many local trips are short enough to cover by walking or cycling • Many cities throughout the USA and Canada are vastly improving their walking and cycling facilities • But much more could be done, and there are many ways to do it.