LEED Project Site Sustainability
Instructor: Dr. Sahar Kharrufa
What does mean SITE SUSTAINABILITY ?
How does your project impact a site? Buildings have significant effects on their surroundings, including vegetation, wildlife habitats, and water movements (hydrology). A building can also influence a site's cultural history, urban density, and local infrastructure. The key is to realize that your development is not only sitting on the ground, affecting the site adjacent to it, but also radiating its affects on larger systems, both local and global.
2.1.Non-Roof 11. Development Density & Community Connectivity 4. Storm water Design .Quantity Control 10. Heat Island Effect . Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms 7.Quality Control 11. Parking Capacity 9.Protect or Restore Habitat 9.Context
1. Low Emission & Fuel Efficient Vehicles 8.Maximize Open Space 10. Site Development . Storm water Design . Site Development . Brownfield Redevelopment 5. Construction Activity Pollution Prevention (prerequisite) 3.2. Light Pollution Reduction
. Site Selection 2. Public Transportation Access 6.1.2. Heat Island Effect .Roof 12.1.
Intention: To avoid development in inappropriate sites. rivers. Implementation: DO NOT develop on sites: Prime farmland as defined by USDA1 Within 50ft. etc. Habitat for any endangered or critical species. of a water body (lakes. seas. To reduce environmental impact from the location of a building on a site. Public parkland (Park Authority projects are exempt)
Submittal Phase: Design
• • • • •
1.) Comply with Clean Water Act.S. Department of Agriculture
Construction Activity Pollution Prevention is the first. There are 7 overall prerequisites in the New Construction version 2. • Submittal Phase: Construction
1-Prerequisite credits are mandatory credits that MUST be accomplished for a building to become LEED certified.2 LEED-AP reference guide .Construction Activity Pollution Prevention (prerequisite )
• Prevention This is a prerequisite credit.
• Ways to control sedimentation: 1.structural : silt fences .Erosion and Sedimentation Control
. earth dikes . • Follow the EPA 2003 (Environmental Protection Agency) standards.stabilization : seeding and mulching 2. and sedimentation. Pollution on construction sites can be reduced by controlling: Soil erosion Airborne dust generation Waterway sedimentation
Implementation: (Erosion and Sedimentation Control) 1 • Provide ESC plan into construction documents and specifications. pollution. there can be a lot of pollution going on.•
• • •
Intention: During construction. • Goal is to prevent the loss of soil. sediment traps
1. especially when it rains.
• Protect green fields and protect habitat and natural resources. per acre compare to 2 story downtown building previously developed site.ft. restaurants .etc.Development Density & Community Connectivity
Intention: • To channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure. churches. within 1/2 mile of residential area averaging density 10/units per acre
1-unit of area used to measure plots of ground
• Community Connectivity (OPTION 2) previously developed site within 1/2 mile radius of 10 basic services such as Banks. Implementation: • Density Development (OPTION1 ) 1 Minimum 60.000 sq.
Compensation. and Liability Act
. 1 Brownfield definition by the EPA and CERCLA .Comprehensive Environmental Response.
1-ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 2.Brownfield Redevelopment
This credit happens to be one of the most expensive to implement. Thusly there are many government incentives / tax breaks to help.
Intention: • Rehabilitate damaged sites (environmentally contaminated sites) • Reduce pressure on undeveloped land • • Implementation: Rebuild on a contaminated site as documented by ASTM E1903-07 or local codes.
from existing or future planned (and funded) train or subway station • Case 2: locate project within 1/4 mi. from two public or campus bus lines
.Public Transportation Access
Intention: Reduce Pollution from auto use and Reduce land development from auto use Implementation: • Case 1: locate project within 1/2 mi.
An 8-hour occupant has an FTE value of 1. FTE Occupants = Occupant Hours / 8 This calculation must be consistent for all LEED for New Construction credits.Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms
• This is the first credit that deals with FTE1 occupants.0. while a parttime occupant has an FTE value based on their hours per day divided by 8. The definition of FTE is a sort of calculation explained here: Calculate the full-time equivalent (FTE) building occupants based on a standard 8-hour occupancy period.
Implementation: • Case 1: provide bike rack (based on 0.005 FTE) within 200 yards Case 2 (residential): provide bike rack for 15% of residents
.05 FTE measured at PEAK periods) within 200 yards AND provide changing room and shower (based on 0.Intention: Reduce Pollution from auto use . Reduce land development from auto use .
Low Emitting and Fuel Efficient Vehicles
Intention: • Reduce Pollution from auto use • Reduce land development from auto use
Implementation: Option 1: provide low emission cars (yes. provide cars to people). • preferred parking EXCLUDES handicap spaces
. with preferred parking (0.03 FTE) Option 2: provide preferred parking for low emission cars Option 3: provide charging station and refuel stations for low emission cars • low emission car = ZEV (zero emission vehicle) = minimum energy star of 40.
• • Reduce Pollution from auto use Reduce land development from auto use • Implementation: Option 1 (non-residential): • do not exceed local parking requirements in proposed parking scheme . • provide carpool parking Option 2 (non-residential): • for projects that provide parking for less than 5% of FTE building occupants: provide carpool parking Option 3 (residential): • do not exceed local codes • shared vehicle program Option 4 (all): • provide no new parking
of main utility trenches & 10ft. of roadways • 10 ft.variation in life forms
.000 sq. min/acre) and using vegetated roofs may apply vegetated roof surface for this calculation • 20% of site area to be green • include building footprint in calculation 1. of constructed areas • 15 ft.ft. for utilities less than 12in. of walkways • 15 ft.Protect or Restore Habitat
Intention: • Conserve existing natural areas • Restore damaged areas • Provide habitat space • Promote biodiversity 1 Implementation: Green field sites : protect by limiting site disturbance beyond: • 40 ft. diameter previously developed sites : • keep 50% of site green (using native species) • exclude building footprint in calculation zero-lot-line: • projects earning SS2 (60. of building perimeter • 25 ft.
Maximize Open Space
Intention: • A high open space to footprint ratio • Promote biodiversity Implementation: • Case 1: there IS a local code for open space restriction – open space should exceed local code by 25% • Case 2: there is NO code (campuses or military bases) – open space is to be same size as building footprint • Case 3: there IS a local code. but ZERO open space requirement: – open space should be 20% of site area
pervious pavement. rainwater recycling non-structural surfaces: vegetated roofs. vegetated swales. grid pavers .Storm water Design .
• • • • • • • • • Limit the disruption of natural hydrology Increase on-site filtration Manage storm water runoff Eliminate sources of contaminants Reduce impervious cover Reduce/eliminate pollution Remove pollutants from storm water runoff Storm water Design (for reduction of impervious surface) alternative surfaces: rain gardens.
such as pavements and building roofs. • case 2: impervious surface more than 50% of total site area – post-development peak discharge rate and quantity 25% less than predevelopment
• case 1: impervious surface1 less than or equal to 50% of total site area – post-development peak discharge rate and quantity equal to or less than predevelopment – implement a storm water management plan that protect receiving stream channels from excessive erosion by implementing a stream channel protection strategy and quantity control strategies. which replace naturally pervious soil with impervious construction materials.
rainwater recycling non-structural surfaces: vegetated roofs. grid pavers
• • • • • • • • • • Limit the disruption of natural hydrology Increase on-site filtration Manage storm water runoff Eliminate sources of contaminants Reduce impervious cover Reduce/eliminate pollution Remove pollutants from storm water runoff Storm water Design (for reduction of impervious surface) alternative surfaces: rain gardens. vegetated swales. pervious pavement.Storm water Design .
swales • natural and mechanical treatment: constructed wetlands. vegetated filters and open channels
1. environmentally sensitive design) • alternative surfaces: vegetated roofs.Best Management Practices
.Total suspended solids 2.Implementation: • treat and capture 90% storm water runoff 1 • remove 80% TSS2 use acceptable BMPs considering the following: • sustainable design strategies: low impact.
which is the ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature. This credit reduces this effect. It ranged from 0 (black) to 100 (white). • This credit also mentions the Solar Reflectance Index (SRI). all of that black asphalt and concrete on the ground makes areas a lot warmer.
• The Heat Island effect occurs when warm temperatures are experienced in urban areas compared to adjacent rural areas1 because of solar energy retention on constructed surfaces. It’s a way to measure a materials ability to reject solar heat. (Countrysides)
. Basically.Heat Island Effect .are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. This is not to be confused with emissivity.
Intention: • Reduce heat islands • Minimize impact on microclimate and habitats Implementation: • option 1: – provide shade to 50% of site area (within 5 years of occupancy) – provide open grid area (parking. • option 2: – provide 50% parking underground or under roof – provide paving material with SRI 29 or higher. roads.
. sidewalks) with paving material of SRI 29 or higher.
5) is greater than total roof area.Roof
Intention: • Reduce heat islands • Minimize impact on microclimate and habitats Implementation: option 1: 75% roof material should be: SRI 78 for a slope less than 2:12 (low-sloped roof) SRI 29 for a slope more than 2:12 (steep-sloped roof) option 2: Install a vegetated roof for at least 50% of the roof area option3: combination of options 1 & 2: Calculation of (Area of SRI roof /0.
.75) + (Area of vegetated roof / 0.Heat Island Effect .
Light Pollution Reduction
Intention: • Minimize light trespass from building and site • Reduce sky glow • Improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction • Reduce development impact on nocturnal environments
and manufactured homes.Implementation: 4 Light Zones • LZ1: dark.5 times building height from property line – Credit does not apply to 3 story buildings. – DO NOT install lighting more than 2. density less than 200 people per square mile • LZ2: low (residential) • LZ3: medium (commercial.
. warehouses. entertainment districts) • Interior Lighting:
– stays inside – non-emergency lights shut down at non-business hours
– provide for comfort and safety only – DO NOT exceed 80% of lighting power densities for exterior area and 50% for building facades and landscape features. industrial and high-density residential) • LZ4: high major city centers.
• Mahmood • Rashed • Siyavash