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Transatlantic Migration

Sean Verrier and Brandon Lee

Summary
During the period of time known as the Transatlantic Immigration prior to 1924 it appeared in many ways that it was all to the United States. This statement is not true at all. The continents of North and South America were known as the free world and many Europeans traveled back and forth between these countries. The United States is the most famous because it received the most immigrants and the most immigrants stayed there, instead of returning to their home country. Again with the United States keeping a large portion of those who came. Unlike other countries in the Americas, which did have many of them stay, but not as high as a percentage in the United States. There were a few things that were common in all of the countries. One thing that was common among them was the groups of immigrants from the same country would live together. They

did not live in ghettos but rather in neighborhoods with people of similar descent. Another common thing was
racism within countries where immigrants were leaving and coming into. They were discriminated between groups or even by the countries themselves. For example Asian immigrants were not liked and the U.S even halted the immigration of Asians at one point. The biggest similarity is the reason why these people were leaving their home countries. Some left to seek religious freedom and to be free of oppression, others in search for more jobs and opportunities. These countries were relatively young at the time and there were many ways to make good money. This caught the eyes of many Europeans. Many came to make good money and then return home to have a better life for their families. A lot came and stayed, whether they liked the new country or were making a good living off of whatever opportunity they had found. There was a frequent flow of people

back and forth up until World War 1 and a short time after. After that it slowed down, shaping the countries into
what they are today, population wise, and ethnically.

This is a graph of the immigration of the U.S. from 1870 to 1920. This was the biggest immigration period in U.S. history. It also separates where the immigrants came from all over the word. The blue represents the Northern and western Europeans. The black represents the people from Asia, Africa, and the Americas, and the red represents the people from Eastern and Southern Europeans.

Immigration 1900-1990: This is a line graph that shows the amount if immigrants entering the U.S. from 1900-1990. It also shows a steep decline at about 1915. This was the end of the major immigration period for the U.S. There is a steep increase after 1950 that continues to grow through 1990. Only to continue increasing after that even though the graph does not show it.

People would come over by the hundreds. All of them crammed in small boats like this awaiting a new life in a new country. Because of such crowdedness and lack of privacy; it was common for quite a few people on the boat to become sick and even die on the way over. Many traveled with families or by themselves. A majority of the time the boats were filled with people of the same country. Diseases such as typhus and cholera often took 10 - 25% of the passengers lives, but this drastically decreased in the 1850s with improved ships and sanitary regulations. Ships took 4 to 6 weeks to travel to America in the early 1800s. In the late 1850s, companies then started to offer biweekly sailings and then weekly sailings in the 1880s.

Immigrants often left with neighbors, friends and family to immigrate at the major ports in Hamburg or Bremen. Germans used Dutch or French ports in addition to the ones in Hamburg and Bremen,, and Italians lefts from Naples, Genoa, Trieste and Marseilles. About 30% - 50% of these people would come to work for a few months or years then return home to see the rest of their families and help support them.

This cartoon shows the racism the Americans had towards the Italian immigrants. The immigrants who came to the Americas mostly filled low skill, low pay jobs and thus many Americans looked down upon the immigrants. John R. Commons stated in a book he wrote in 1907 that the immigrants coming from the southwest were lesser in that their countries governments were monarchies, education was less widespread and they were mainly agricultural based compared to the Americans and Northeastern Europeans manufacturing based countries.

This cartoon also shows racism towards the Italian immigrants. It puts them in a bad light, saying that they were a nuisance to other citizens, theyre cleanly in their homes and they often fight for pleasure. It is obvious that the creator and the intended audience of this cartoon view the Italians as hindrances on society and want them out. Although they weren't the only race discriminated, they were the most populous race coming into the Americas at the time.

Page from handout with numbers of people coming from and going into countries: This shows the specific number of people entering the countries in the new world from 1830-1920. Then underneath is the amount of people from different countries in Europe from 1846-1924. The clear leader for receiving immigrants is the U.S. The biggest sender is the United Kingdom.

This shows the countries that the immigrants are coming from and going to across the Atlantic Ocean. There are four major countries that are taking in millions of immigrants. The majority of European immigrants went to the United States, and the biggest The European countries that people are coming from greatly out number the countries that are receiving them.

This picture shows where the European immigrants were coming from and how many of them were coming from each of those countries every ten years. The most immigrants came between 1901 and 1911. Many of them were Italians, and people from the United Kingdom. There was a steep rise towards 1909 in the amount of immigrants thaat were comming to the Americas

Walter Nugent was a historian and a professor at both The University of Notre Dame for 16 years and Indiana University for 21. He has taught in various other countries such as England, Germany and Ireland and has written 11 books and over 200 reviews and essays.

Pictography

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