Elements of Music

Instrumentation .

Five Groups of Instruments Percussion Drums Strings Dulcimer Brass Trumpet Electronic Synthesizer/ Keyboard Woodwinds Bassoon Cymbals Violin Tuba Panpipes .

Notation  Bar lines ~ vertical lines drawn through the staff to mark off measures Bass sign ~ appears at the beginning in a piece Clef sign ~ appear at the beginning in a piece Grand Staff ~ combined treble and bass staff Key signature ~ designation of sharps and flats at the beginning of a composition to indicate its' basic scale and tonality Natural ~ note that is neither sharp or a flat Pitch ~ Music alphabet goes from A to G Rest ~ type of notation is used to indicate silence in music .

equidistant lines with spaces in between. .Staff Five parallel.

Bar Lines  A vertical line placed in a STAFF to mark off MEASURES. .

There are two : TREBLE Clef BASS Clef .Clefs  Musical symbol that names lines and spaces.

. A.Treble Clef    Also called the "G" clef because the loop at the bottom wraps around the line on a staff for the 'G' note above middle 'C'. F. The Lines designate the following notes. up : E. .This is easily remembered by using the mnemonic "Every Good Boy Does Fine" The spaces are for the notes F. E. in order from the bottom. D.G. in order from the bottom up. C. B.

A or "Good Boys Do Fine Always" The spaces are called A. C. E G or "All cows eat grass" . The lines are labeled G.Bass Clef    Also called the "F" clef as the dots are placed above and below the line marking 'F' below middle 'C'. F. D. B.

. In the picture (left) both notes with ledger lines indicate middle C.Ledger Lines  Lines added above or below the staff.

C to C to C .

Reading Music  Quarter note ~ receives one beat in 4/4 time Dot ~ adds half the value of the note to the note. Fermata ~ symbol which indicates a hold Flat ~ symbol that lowers a pitch by one half step Sharp ~ symbol that raises a pitch by one half step     .

Tempo  Speed of the music Allegro ~ fast and lively tempo Moderato ~ moderate tempo Largo ~ very slow Syncopation ~ a deliberate shift of the normal pulse     .

The main part of the song."  The part of the song you sing.Melody  tune: a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence.  . “She was humming an air from Beethoven.

voice.Timbre  The character or quality of a sound that distinguishes one instrument. or other sound source from another.    The blat of a tuba The thundering of the bass The wail of a harmonica .

harmony is a result of counterpoint or polyphony.Harmony  Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity and chords. several melodic lines or motifs being played at once. in music. with melody being the "horizontal" aspect. It is sometimes referred to as the "vertical" aspect of music. actual or implied. Very often. . though harmony may control the counterpoint.

    Fortissimo (ff)– very loud Mezzo fortisimo (mf)– medium loud Mezzo pianissimo (mp)– Medium soft Pianissimo (pp)– very softly .Dynamics  Varying degrees of loud and soft.

(del Segno) ~ music term. which indicates the end of a section to be repeated D. (da Capo) ~ means "from the beginning“ D. al Fine ~ musical term which indicates to go back to the sign and perform to the end Duple meter ~ 2/4 time Harmonic progressions ~ used in the "Blues. development and recapitulation Triads ~ term for a chord of three tones consisting of a root. as in Motet or Choral sung in four parts Modulation ~ change of key within a composition Monophonic ~ one melody line.C.S." harmonic device serves as the basis for musical organization Homophonic ~ having a single melodic line with accompaniment. as in plain song or Gregorian Chant Phrase ~ represents a complete musical idea. a third and a fifth Triple meter ~ ¾ time .More Music Definitions                  Al fine ~ musical term which indicates "the end“ Cadence ~ musical chord sequence moving to a harmonic close or point of rest giving a harmonic completion Coda ~ short connecting section or an added ending or "Tag" at the end of a composition Crescendo < ~ play louder D.S. comparable to a complete sentence Polyphonic ~ musical selection that has more than one melody line Sonata-allegro form ~ musical form consisting of three sections: exposition.

Musical Forms    Rondo– composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections Theme and variations– musical form in which a main idea is stated musically. then the idea is varied Sonata-allegro form– musical form consisting of three sections:  Exposition  Development  Recapitulation .

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