Crane and Hoist Safety

PUBH 3310 November 13, 2009

1

Objectives
• Know hazards associated with cranes • Become familiar with common types of industrial and construction cranes • Understand rigging basics, including the importance of “sling angle” • Be familiar with methods of controlling crane hazards and preventing accidents
2

Outline
• Crane Hazards • Crane types
– Industrial cranes – Construction cranes – Rigging (and “sling angle”)

• Controlling hazards
– – – – Inspections and training Power lines Equipment failure and crane stability Other
3

000 in construction – 80.Crane Hazards • Over 250.000 cranes in operation – 125.000 general and maritime • 80 fatalities per year • One death per thousand crane operators in their working lifetime (45 years) • Risk to citizens and other workers 4 .

et al. 1984- 5 . Crane-Related Deaths in the U. Construction Industry. Suruda.S.Causes of Crane Fatalities Electrocution Crane assembly/disassembly Crane upset/overturn Rigging failure Overloading Struck by moving load Manlifts Struck by counterweight Two-blocking Hoist limitations Other 39% 12% 7% 7% 4% 4% 4% 2% 2% 2% 6% A.

Crane Types • "Industrial cranes“ – Overhead – Gantry – Jib • "Construction cranes“ – Mobile – Tower – Derricks 6 .

little training required.Industrial Cranes • Overhead Cranes – Common in industrial facilities – Supported by overhead rails – Components • Bridge • Trolley • Hoist – Often pendant or remote operated – Easy to use. no stability problems 7 .

Industrial Cranes • Gantry cranes – Similar to overhead cranes.000 pound capacity) gantry crane Large (600 ton capacity) gantry crane 8 . but supported by a mobile frame which travels on the ground Small (1000 – 10.

Industrial Cranes • Jib cranes – Pivot mounted boom with trolley and hoist Floor-mounted jib crane Wall-mounted jib crane 9 .

Industrial Cranes • Power hoist – Usually electric or air operated • Chain hoist (or "chain fall") – Hand operated 10 .

Construction Cranes • Tower cranes – Variable height “climbing cranes” – Used for building construction 11 .

Construction Cranes • Mobile cranes – Crawler cranes – Truck cranes – Hydraulic cranes • Boom telescopes • May have jib • Equipped with outriggers for stability 12 .

Hydraulic Cranes 13 .

Hydraulic Cranes 14 .

• • • • Gin pole Chicago boom Stiff-leg Etc. etc.Construction cranes • Derricks – Boom angle changes to adjust horizontal distance – Often used in shipyards. 15 . building construction.

Mine-shaft rescue using a gin pole derrick improvised from an extension ladder Stiff-leg construction derrick 16 .

Hay derrick 17 .

Rigging • Rigging: The hardware and equipment used to safely attach a load to a lifting device – Wire rope • Usually a "core" member to increase flexibility – Fiber Core (FC) – Wire Strand Core (WSC) – Independent Wire-rope Core (IWRC) 18 .

Rigging • Fittings. sheaves – Shackles – Blocks – Sockets – Hooks • May have safety latch – Eyes – Turnbuckles 19 .

20 .Rigging • Always use rigging to connect the load to the hook • Materials – Wire rope – Fabric – Chain – – – – • Slings Straight (regular) Choker Basket Double. etc. triple.

Rigging • Sling angle – Stress on sling legs varies with the angle – Divide the load by the number of sling legs. and divide by sin of 2000 lbs the angle  • For a two-legged sling. stress = 1155 lbs on the sling leg 2 legs 1 1155 lbs  sin 60 leg 2000 lbs 1 2000 lbs   2 legs sin 30 leg 21 . 2000 lb load and 60 degree.

Controlling Crane Hazards • Operators – 18 years old – Physical exam – Knowledge (training) • Estimating load weight • Signals • Operation – Skill (demonstration) 22 .

crane operation – Periodic • At least annually • Complete inspection . deterioration. monthly • Hooks. damage.wear. operation • slings • Testing • Records 23 . rope.Controlling Crane Hazards • Inspection – Frequent • Daily.

according to mfg. add 4 inches per 10 kv – Use proximity alarms • Warn when energized line is near • “No fatalities” in 25 years.Preventing Crane Accidents • Contact with energized power lines (45% of accidents) – De-energize overhead lines – Maintain minimum distance • 10 feet distance for 50 kv • Over 50 kv. – Warning signs • I-15 construction was a good example Sigalarm® 24 .

Warning label 25 .

etc.Preventing Crane Accidents • Under hook lifting device problems • Overturned cranes – Inspect. proper use. – Assure a level and stable base for the crane – Comply with load charts • Weight • Boom angle and extension • Only vertical loads – Wind can cause a significant side load 26 .

Load Chart • Load charts inside the cab include Structural capacity and tipping limits for the crane • Capacity is highest for short radius “over front” loads with outriggers extended. 27 .

760* 45.370 27.910 47.770 16.910 13.510* 49.310* 33.310 23.8' Boom Over Front 24' Boom 29.8' Boom 18.250* 50.600* 57.540 56.250* 37.750 .510* 49.310* 35.150* 52.230* 43.090 32.870 23.970 33.8' Boom 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 65.060* 41.330 11.471 29.720* 61.030 15.8' Boom 18.520* 46.820 47.Load Chart Rear Over Radi us 18.490 23.540* 39.350 26.030 66.090 28.540 56.760* 44.940 47.310* 35.8' Boom Over Side 24' Boom 29.080 30.230* 43.250* 50.060* 41.600* 57.250* 33.390* 39.960 56.060* 41.010 65.370 22.180 25.080 28.430 25 29 16.730 28.620 27.230* 43.250 22.290 26.250* 37.510* 49.8' Boom 24' Boom 29.

Preventing Crane Accidents • Dropped loads – Operating anti-two block device (upper limit switch) – Proper rigging – Inspection • Boom collapse – – – – Inspection Stable base No overloading No horizontal loading • Crushing by the counter weight – Stay away from the rear of the crane 29 .

Preventing Crane Accidents • Proper outrigger use – Level – Fully extended – Stable base • Use cribbing to distribute the load 30 .

Outrigger Use Outrigger with cribbing 31 .

etc. – Fall protection for workers suspended by crane "man basket" or "suspended work platform“ • Falls 32 .Preventing Crane Accidents • Rigging failure – Inspection – Proper use • temperature. angles.

org/en/document/96/d 000104/managing-mobile-cranehazards.elcosh.osha.Links • Managing Mobile Crane Hazards – http://www.html 33 . Derrick.gov/SLTC/cranehoistsafet y/index. and Hoist Safety – http://www.html • Crane.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful