Introduction to Metal-OxideSemiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs

)
Chapter 7, Anderson and Anderson

MOSFET
• • • • • • • History Structure Future Review Threshold Voltage I-V Characteristics Modifications to I-V:
– – – – – Depletion layer correction (Sup. 3) Mobility, Vsat Short Channel Effects Channel Length Modulation Channel Quantum Effects

• • • • •

MOSFET Scaling and Current Topics (Literature + Sup. 3) Subthreshold Behavior Damage and Temperature (Sup. 3) Spice (Sup. 3) HFET, MESFET, JFET, DRAM, CCD (Some in Sup. 3)

MOSFET History (Very Short!)
• First Patents:
– 1935

• Variable Capacitor Proposed:
– 1959

• Silicon MOS:
– 1960

• Clean PMOS, NMOS:
– Late 1960s, big growth!

• CCDs:
– 1970s, Bell Labs

• Switch to CMOS:
– 1980s

Structure: n-channel MOSFET (NMOS)
body (bulk or B substrate) source S
IS

gate: metal or heavily doped poly-Si G drain IG=0 D
ID=IS

y

metal
oxide

n+ x

p

n+

L

W

MOSFET Future (One Part of)
• International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2008 update. • Look at size, manufacturing technique.

From Intel

Structure: n-channel MOSFET (NMOS)
body (bulk or B substrate) source S
IS

gate: metal or heavily doped poly-Si G drain IG=0 D
ID=IS

y

metal
oxide

n+ x

p

n+

L

W

MOSFET Scaling
ECE G201

Gate prevents “top” gate

Fin (30nm)

BOX

enhancement-type: no channel at zero gate voltage

Circuit Symbol (NMOS)
D
ID= IS

G
IG = 0

B
IS

(IB=0, should be reverse biased)

S

G-Gate D-Drain S-Source B-Substrate or Body

Structure: n-channel MOSFET (NMOS)
body (bulk or B substrate) source S
IS

gate: metal or heavily doped poly-Si G drain IG=0 D
ID=IS

y

metal
oxide

n+ x

p

n+

L

W

Energy bands
(“flat band” condition; not equilibrium) (equilibrium)

Flatbands! For this choice of materials, VGS<0
n+pn+ structure  ID ~ 0
body B source S gate G
- +

drain D

VD=Vs n++
oxide

n+

p

n+

L

W

Flatbands < VGS < VT (Includes VGS=0 here).
n+-depletion-n+ structure  ID ~ 0
body B source S gate G
- +

drain D

VD=Vs +++ n++
oxide

n+

p

n+

L

W

VGS > VT
n+-n-n+ structure  inversion
body B source S gate G
- +

drain D

n+

+++ +++ +++ n++ oxide ----p

VD=Vs

n+

L

W

Channel Charge (Qch)

VGS>VT

Depletion region charge (QB) is due to uncovered acceptor ions

Qch

n++ n+ p n+

L

W

(x)

Ec(y) with VDS=0

Increasing VGS decreases EB

EB

EF ~ EC

0

L

y

Triode Region
A voltage-controlled resistor @small VDS
B S - + +++ +++ metal - oxide - p -+ +++ +++ +++ metal - -oxide - - p -+ +++ +++ +++ +++ metal - - -oxide- - --p D VGS1>Vt

ID

n+

n+

increasing VGS

B

S

D VGS2>VGS1 G n+

n+

cut-off
B S D VGS3>VGS2

VDS 0.1 v

n+

n+

Increasing VGS puts more charge in the channel, allowing more drain current to flow

Saturation Region
occurs at large VDS As the drain voltage increases, the difference in voltage between the drain and the gate becomes smaller. At some point, the difference is too small to maintain the channel near the drain  pinch-off
body B source S gate G
- +

drain D

+++ +++ +++ metal
oxide

VDS large

n+

p

n+

Saturation Region
occurs at large VDS The saturation region is when the MOSFET experiences pinch-off. Pinch-off occurs when VG - VD is less than VT.
body B source S gate G
- +

drain D

+++ +++ +++ metal
oxide

VDS large

n+

p

n+

Saturation Region
occurs at large VDS VGS - VDS < VT or VGD < VDS > VGS - VT
gate G
- +

VT

body B

source S

drain D

+++ +++ +++ metal
oxide

VD>>Vs

n+

p

n+

Saturation Region
once pinch-off occurs, there is no further increase in drain current
ID saturation triode increasing VGS
VDS>VGS-VT VDS<VGS-VT

VDS 0.1 v

Band diagram of triode and saturation

Simplified MOSFET I-V Equations
Cut-off: VGS< VT ID = IS = 0 Triode: VGS>VT and VDS < VGS-VT ID = kn’(W/L)[(VGS-VT)VDS - 1/2VDS2] Saturation: VGS>VT and VDS > VGS-VT ID = 1/2kn’(W/L)(VGS-VT)2 where kn’= (electron mobility)x(gate capacitance) = µn(εox/tox) …electron velocity = µnE and VT depends on the doping concentration and

Energy bands
(“flat band” condition; not equilibrium) (equilibrium)

Channel Charge (Qch)

VGS>VT

Depletion region charge (QB) is due to uncovered acceptor ions

Qch

Threshold Voltage Definition
VGS = VT when the carrier concentration in the channel is equal to the carrier concentration in the bulk silicon.

Mathematically, this occurs when φs=2φf , where φs is called the surface potential

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