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Design of Seismic

-
Resistant Steel
Building Structures
Prepared by:
Michael D. Engelhardt
University of Texas at Austin
with the support of the
American Institute of Steel Construction.
Version 1 - March 2007
4. Eccentrically Braced
Frames
Design of Seismic-Resistant
Steel Building Structures
1 - Introduction and Basic Principles
2 - Moment Resisting Frames
3 - Concentrically Braced Frames
4 - Eccentrically Braced Frames
5 - Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
6 - Special Plate Shear Walls
4 - Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs)
• Description of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• Basic Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• AISC Seismic Provisions for Eccentrically Braced
Frames

Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs)
• Description of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• Basic Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• AISC Seismic Provisions for Eccentrically Braced
Frames

Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs)
• Framing system with beam, columns and braces. At least one end of
every brace is connected to isolate a segment of the beam called a
link.
• Resist lateral load through a combination of frame action and truss
action. EBFs can be viewed as a hybrid system between moment
frames and concentrically braced frames.

• Develop ductility through inelastic action in the links.

• EBFs can supply high levels of ductility (similar to MRFs), but can
also provide high levels of elastic stiffness (similar to CBFs)
e
e
Link
Link
e
e
Link
Link
Some possible bracing arrangement for EBFS
e e
e e
e
e
Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs)
• Description of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• Basic Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• AISC Seismic Provisions for Eccentrically Braced
Frames

Inelastic Response of EBFs
Energy Dissipation Mechanisms
MRF CBF
EBF
Design of EBFs - General Approach
• Design frame so that inelastic behavior is
restricted to links.
 Links are "fuse" elements of frame.
 Links are weakest element of frame. All
other frame elements (braces, columns,
beam segments outside of link,
connections) are stronger than links.
• Detail links to provide high ductility
(stiffeners, lateral bracing).
EBFs - Link Behavior
• Link plastic rotation angle
• Forces in links
• Shear vs flexural yielding links
• Link nominal strength
• Post-yield behavior of links
• Examples of experimental
performance of links


¸
p

¸
p
= link plastic rotation angle (rad)
Link Plastic Rotation Angle
¸
p
¸
p

¸
p
= link plastic rotation angle (rad)
Link Plastic Rotation Angle
M
V
P
Link Behavior: Forces in Links
e e
e
V V
M M
V
M
M
Will link plastic strength be
controlled by shear or flexure?
Link length "e" is key parameter
that controls inelastic behavior
Link Behavior: Shear vs Flexural Yielding Links
e
V V
M M
V
M
M
Shear yielding occurs when:
Shear yield
stress of steel
web area of link
V
p
= fully plastic shear
capacity of link section
V = V
p
= 0.6 F
y
(d - 2t
f
) t
w

e
V V
M M
V
M
M
Flexural yielding occurs when:
M = M
p
= Z F
y

M
p
= fully plastic moment of
link section
Static equilibrium of link: Ve = 2M or:
e
2M
V
=
e
V V
M M
Shear vs. Flexural Yielding Links:
Shear and flexural yielding occur simultaneously
when V=V
p
and M=M
p
or, when:
p
p
V
M 2
e =
e
V
p
V
p

M
p
M
p

Shear yielding will occur
when V=V
p
and M < M
p
or, when:
e
2M
V
p
p
s
e
V
p
V
p

M M
V =V
p

M < M
p

shear yielding of web along
entire length of link
Shear yielding will occur
when M = M
p
and V < V
p
or, when:
e
V V
M
p
M
p

V <V
p

M = M
p

e
2M
V
p
p
>
M = M
p

flexural yielding at link ends
Shear Vs. Flexural Yielding Links:
e
2M
V
p
p
s
Simple Plastic Theory (assumes no strain hardening and
no shear - flexure interaction)
SHEAR YIELDING LINK:
FLEXURAL YIELDING LINK:
e
2M
V
p
p
>
Link Nominal Shear Strength, V
n
:
Link Nominal Shear Strength:
• Basis for sizing links
• Based on link shear at first significant
yield if link (in shear or flexure)
• Based on simple plastic theory
(neglects shear-flexure interaction)

Link Nominal Shear Strength, V
n
:
V
n
= lesser of
V
p

2M
p
/ e
controls for:
controls for:
e
2M
V
p
p
s
p
p
V
2M
e >
Example: W14x82 A992
kips in
ksi in
÷
= × = = 6950 50 139 ZF M
3
y p
( )
( )
kips
193
0 51 . 0 5 85 . 2 3 . 14 ksi 50 6 . 0
t t 2 d F 6 . 0 V
w f y p
=
' '
×
' '
× ÷
' '
× × =
÷ =
2 7 6 3 2
V
M 2
p
p
' '
=
' '
× =
6 3
193
6950
V
M
p
p
' '
= =
÷
kips
kips in
Example: W14x82 A992
V
n
= lesser of
V
p

2M
p
/ e
Link nominal shear strength:
= 193
kips
= 13,900
in-kips
/ e

Example: W14x82 A992
Link nominal shear strength:
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 36 72 108 144 180
Link Length e (inches)
L
i
n
k

N
o
m
i
n
a
l

S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
k
i
p
s
)
0 1 2 3 4 5
e / (M
p
/V
p
)
V
n
=V
p

V
n
=2M
p
/e
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
-0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
Link Rotation, ¸ (rad)
L
i
n
k

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e


(
k
i
p
s
)
Post-yield behavior of links: Strain hardening
V
n

V
ult

Post-yield behavior of links: Strain hardening
Effects of Strain Hardening:
• At large inelastic deformations, link shear
resistance will significantly exceed V
n

V
ult
≈ (1.25 to 1.5) × V
n

• Combined shear and flexural yielding will occur
over a range of link lengths.
e
1.6M
V
p
p
s
PREDOMINANTLY SHEAR YIELDING LINK:
PREDOMINANTLY FLEXURAL YIELDING LINK:
e
2.6 M
V
p
p
>
COMBINED SHEAR AND FLEXURAL YIELDING:
1.6M
V
e
2.6 M
V
p
p
p
p
s s
Post-yield behavior of links
Example: W14x82 A992
kips in
ksi in
÷
= × = = 6950 50 139 ZF M
3
y p
( )
( )
kips
193
0 51 . 0 5 85 . 2 3 . 14 ksi 50 6 . 0
t t 2 d F 6 . 0 V
w f y p
=
' '
×
' '
× ÷
' '
× × =
÷ =
6 3
193
6950
V
M
p
p
' '
= =
÷
kips
kips in
Example: W14x82 A992 (cont)
6 3
V
M
p
p
' '
= 8 5
V
M
6 . 1
p
p
' '
= 4 9
V
M
6 . 2
p
p
' '
=
PREDOMINANTLY SHEAR YIELDING LINK: e s 58"
PREDOMINANTLY FLEXURAL YIELDING LINK: e > 94"
COMBINED SHEAR AND FLEXURAL YIELDING LINK: 58" < e < 94"
Link post-yield behavior:
Shear Yielding Links
p
p
V
M 1.6
e s
Provide best overall structural performance for:
• strength
• stiffness
• ductility
V
A
e
¸ =
A
e
Link Deformation:
(radian)
¸
Experimental Performance of Shear Links
Experimental Performance of a Shear Link:
W10x33 (A992) e = 23" = 1.1 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of a Shear Link:
W10x33 (A992) e = 23" = 1.1 M
p
/V
p

-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
-0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
Link Rotation, ¸ (rad)
L
i
n
k

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e


(
k
i
p
s
)
Experimental Performance of a Shear Link:
W10x33 (A992) e = 23" = 1.1 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of a Shear Link:
W10x33 (A992) e = 23" = 1.1 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of a Shear Link:
W10x33 (A992) e = 23" = 1.1 M
p
/V
p

-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
-0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
Link Plastic Rotation, ¸
p
(rad)
L
i
n
k

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e


(
k
i
p
s
)
¸
p
= ± 0.10 rad
Longer Links
p
p
V
M 1.6
e >
Longer links provide less strength, stiffness and
ductility
Use longer links only when needed for architectural
constraints
Experimental Performance of a Flexural Yielding Link:
W12x16 (A36) e = 44" = 3.4 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of a Flexural Yielding Link:
W12x16 (A36) e = 44" = 3.4 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of an Intermediate (Shear and Flexural Yielding) Link:
W16x36 (A992) e = 48" = 2 M
p
/V
p

Experimental Performance of an Intermediate (Shear and Flexural Yielding) Link:
W16x36 (A992) e = 48" = 2 M
p
/V
p

-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
Link Rotation, ¸ (rad)
L
i
n
k

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e

(
k
i
p
s
)
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0 1 2 3 4 5

Link Length: e/ (M
p
/ V
p
)
L
i
n
k

P
l
a
s
t
i
c

R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
:

¸
p

(
r
a
d
)

Experimentally Determined Link Plastic Rotation Capacities
Shear Yielding Flexural Yielding
Shear +
Flexure
e
EBF Rigid-Plastic Kinematics
L
p p
e
L
u ¸ =
e
L
u
p

¸
p

e
L
p p
e
L
u ¸ =
L
e
u
p

¸
p

L
e e
e e
L
u
p

¸
p

¸
p

p p
e 2
L
u ¸ =
Design of EBFs
General Approach
1. Size links for code levels forces.
2. Size all other members and
connections for maximum forces that
can be generated by links.
3. Estimate ductility demand on links;
check that links can supply the
required ductility
4. Detail links to supply high ductility
(stiffeners and lateral bracing)
Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs)
• Description of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• Basic Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames
• AISC Seismic Provisions for Eccentrically Braced
Frames

2005 AISC Seismic Provisions
Section 15 Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)
15.1 Scope
15.2 Links
15.3 Link Stiffeners
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections
15.5 Lateral Bracing of Links
15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
15.7 Beam-to-Column Connections
15.8 Requires Strength of Columns
15.9 Protected Zone
15.10 Demand Critical Welds
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.1 Scope
Eccentrically braced frames (EBF) are expected to
withstand significant inelastic deformations in the links
when subjected to the forces resulting from the motions
of the design earthquake.
The diagonal braces, columns and beam segments
outside of the links shall be designed to remain
essentially elastic under the maximum forces that can
be generated by the fully yielded and strain hardened
links.
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.2 Links
15.2a Limitations
Links shall meet the requirements of Section 8.2b
The web of the link shall be single thickness. Doubler-plate
reinforcement and web penetrations are not permitted.
15.2a Limitations
Links shall meet the requirements of Section 8.2b
Width-Thickness Limits for Link Flanges and Web:
b/t s
p
p
p
V
M
6 . 1 e for s ì
p
p
ps
V
M
6 . 1 e for > ì
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.2 Links
15.2b Shear Strength
Link design shear strength = | V
n

| = 0.9
V
n
= lesser of
V
p

2M
p
/ e
15.2b Link Shear Strength
Sizing Link:
V
u
s | V
n

V
u
= shear force in link under code
specified forces:
1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S
0.9D + 1.0E
| V
n
= link design shear strength
15.2b Link Shear Strength
V
n
= lesser of
V
pa

2M
pa
/ e
If P
u
> 0.15 P
y
in link:
2
y
u
p pa
P
P
1 V V
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
where:
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
y
u
p pa
P
P
1 M M
P
y
= A F
y

and ....
15.2b Link Shear Strength
If P
u
> 0.15 P
y
in link:
e s
3 . 0
A
A
for
V
M
6 . 1
A
A
5 . 0 15 . 1
g
w
p
p
g
w
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ µ µ
3 . 0
A
A
for
V
M
6 . 1
g
w
p
p
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
µ
where:
u
u
V
P
=
'
µ
( )
w f w
t t 2 d A ÷ =
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.2 Links
15.2c Link Rotation Angle
The link rotation angle is the inelastic angle between the link
and the beam outside of the link when the story drift is equal
to the design story drift, Δ.
The link rotation angle shall not exceed the following values:
a) 0.08 radians for: e s 1.6 M
p
/ V
p

b) 0.02 radians for: e > 2.6 M
p
/ V
p

c) a value determined by linear interpolation between
the above values for: 1.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 2.6 M
p
/ V
p

15.2c Link Rotation Angle
Design Approach to Check Link Rotation Angle, ¸
p

1. Compute elastic story drift under code specified
earthquake forces: Δ
E

2. Compute Design Story Drift: Δ = C
d
× Δ
E

(C
d
= 4 for EBF)
3. Estimate Plastic Story Drift: Δ
p
≈ Δ
4. Compute plastic story drift angle u
p


u
p
≈ Δ
p
/ h where h = story height
5. Compute link rotation angle ¸
p
based on EBF
kinematics
¸
p
= (L / e) u
p
for common EBFs
6. Check link rotation limit per Section 15.2c

15.2c Link Rotation Angle
p p
e
L
u ¸ =
e
L
u
p

¸
p

L
e
u
p

¸
p

p p
e
L
u ¸ =
e e
L
u
p

¸
p

¸
p

p p
e 2
L
u ¸ =
0
5
10
15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
e/L
¸
p

/

u
p
e
L
u
p

¸
p

15.2c Link Rotation Angle
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5
Non-dimensional Link Length: e/ (M
p
/V
p
)
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

P
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
l
e
¸
p
1.6
2.6
Shear Yielding Flexural Yielding
Shear +
Flexure
15.2c Link Rotation Angle
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.3 Link Stiffeners
Full-depth web stiffeners shall be provided on both sides of the
link web at the diagonal brace ends of the link.

These stiffeners shall have a combined width not less than
(b
f
-2t
w
) and a thickness not less than 0.75 t
w
or 3/8-inch,
whichever is larger.
Link Length = e
Full depth stiffeners
on both sides
15.3 Link Stiffeners
15.3 Link Stiffeners (cont)
Links shall be provided with intermediate web stiffeners as
follows:
a) Links of length e s 1.6 M
p
/ V
p

Provide equally spaced stiffeners as follows:
• spacing s 30 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.08 radian
• spacing s 52 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.02 radian
• interpolate for 0.02 < ¸
p
< 0.08 radian
e s 1.6 M
p
/ V
p

(Shear Yielding Links)
s s s s s
Link Length = e
s s
30 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.08 radian
52 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.02 radian
interpolate for 0.02 < ¸
p
< 0.08 radian
15.3 Link Stiffeners
t
w
= link web thickness d = link depth
15.3 Link Stiffeners (cont)
Links shall be provided with intermediate web stiffeners as
follows:
b) Links of length 2.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 5 M
p
/ V
p
Provide stiffener at a distance of 1.5 b
f

from each end of link
15.3 Link Stiffeners
Link Length = e
1.5 b
f
1.5 b
f

b
f
= link flange width
2.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 5 M
p
/ V
p

(Flexural Yielding Links)

15.3 Link Stiffeners (cont)
Links shall be provided with intermediate web stiffeners as
follows:
c) Links of length 1.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 2.6 M
p
/ V
p
Provide stiffeners meeting the
requirements of both (a) and (b)
d) Links of length e > 5 M
p
/ V
p
No stiffeners are required
15.3 Link Stiffeners
Link Length = e
1.5 b
f
1.5 b
f

s s s s
s s
30 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.08 radian
52 t
w
- d /5 for ¸
p
= 0.02 radian
interpolate for 0.02 < ¸
p
< 0.08 radian
1.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 2.6 M
p
/ V
p

(Shear and Flexural Yielding Links)

AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections
Link-to-column connections must be capable of sustaining the
maximum link rotation angle based on the length of the link, as
specified in Section 15.2c
The strength of the connection measured at the column face
shall equal at least the nominal shear strength of the link, V
n
,
as specified in Section 15.2b, at the maximum link rotation
angle
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections
e
e
Link-to-column connections
Must be capable of sustaining:
interpolate for
1.6 M
p
/ V
p
< e < 2.6 M
p
/ V
p

¸
p
> ± 0.08 rad. for e s 1.6 M
p
/ V
p
¸
p
> ± 0.02 rad. for e > 2.6 M
p
/ V
p
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections (cont)
To demonstrate conformance with link-to-column connection
performance requirements:
a) Use a Prequalified link-to-column connection in
accordance with Appendix P

or
b) Provide qualifying cyclic test results in
accordance with Appendix S
Comments:

• Currently no prequalified link-to-column connections
• FEMA 350 or AISC 358 prequalified SMF moment
connections not necessarily suitable for link-to-
column connections
• Suggest avoiding EBF configurations with links
attached to columns until further research available on
link-to-column connections
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections (cont)
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections (cont)
Exception:
The link-to-column connection need not be Prequalified or
be qualified by testing if:
• the connection is reinforced to preclude yielding within
the reinforced section of the link, and
• link length e s 1.6 M
p
/ V
p

• full depth stiffeners are provided at interface of link and
reinforced section
e
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections
Reinforced Link-to-Column Connection
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.5 Lateral Bracing of Link
Lateral bracing shall be provided at both the top and
bottom link flanges at the ends of the link.
The required strength of each lateral brace at the link
ends shall be:
| |
o
Link y y
b
h
Z F R
06 . 0 P =
h
o
= distance between link flange centroids
Link Length = e
Lateral bracing required at top
and bottom link flanges at link
ends
15.5 Lateral Bracing of Link
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
The required strength of the diagonal brace and the
beam outside of the link is based on the maximum
forces that can be generated by the fully yielded and
strain hardened link.
15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
Beam outside of link
Diagonal Brace
M
ult
M
ult

V
ult
V
ult

V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
M
ult

M
ult

V
ult

V
ult

15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
Determining Link Ultimate Shear and End Moment for design
of diagonal brace and beam outside of link
Link Length = e
15.6a: For design of diagonal brace: Take V
ult
= 1.25 R
y
V
n

15.6b: For design of beam outside of link: Take V
ult
= 1.1 R
y
V
n

V
n
= link nominal shear strength = lesser of V
p
or 2 M
p
/ e
M
ult

M
ult

V
ult

V
ult

15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
Determining Link Ultimate Shear and End Moment for design
of diagonal brace and beam outside of link
Link Length = e
Given V
ult
, determine M
ult
from link equilibrium:
2
V e
M
ult
ult
=
(assumes link end moment equalize)
M
V
P
15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.6c Bracing Connections
The required strength of brace connections, at both ends of
the brace, shall be at least equal to the required strength of
diagonal the brace.
Brace connections shall also satisfy Section13.3c.
13.3c: The required axial compressive strength of the brace
connections shall be at least 1.1 R
y
P
n
of the brace,
where: P
n
= nominal compressive strength of brace
V
ult

M
ult

15.6c Bracing Connections
Bracing Connections
• Design for forces (P and M)
generated in brace by V
ult
and
M
ult
of link
• Also check for axial
compression force of 1.1 R
y
P
n

of brace
• No need to provide "fold line,"
since braces are not designed
to buckle, as in SCBF
Bracing Connections - Typical Details
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.7 Beam-to-Column Connections
Beam-to-column connections away from links:
Provide simple framing ("pinned" connection)............. R=7 per ASCE-7
Provide moment resisting connection............................R=8 per ASCE-7
Moment resisting beam-to-column connections
must satisfy requirements for OMF (Section 11)
15.7 Beam-to-Column Connections
Beam-to-column connections
away from links:
Simple Framing: R=7
Moment Resisting
Connections (design per
OMF requirements): R=8
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.8 Required Strength of Columns
The required strength of columns in EBF is based on the
maximum forces generated by the fully yielded and strain
hardened links.
V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

V
ult

M
ult

15.8 Required Strength of Columns
Column Required Strength =
forces generated in column when all
links above level under
consideration have developed their
ultimate shear resistance (V
ult
) and
their ultimate flexural resistance
(M
ult
).

Take V
ult
= 1.1 R
y
V
n
for each link.
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.9 Protected Zone
Links in EBF are protected zones, and shall satisfy
requirements of Section 7.4:
• no shear studs
• no deck attachments that penetrate beam flange
(screws, shot pins)
• no welded, bolted, screwed or shot in attachments for
perimeter edge angles, exterior facades, partitions,
duct work, piping, etc.
Welding is permitted in link for stiffeners
15.9 Protected Zone
Protected Zones
AISC Seismic Provisions - EBF
15.10 Demand Critical Welds
CJP Groove welds attaching the link flanges and the
link web to the column are demand critical welds, and
shall satisfy the requirements of Section 7.3b.
CVN Requirements:
20 ft-lbs at - 20
0
F and
40 ft-lbs at 70
0
F
Section 15 Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)
15.1 Scope
15.2 Links
15.3 Link Stiffeners
15.4 Link-to-Column Connections
15.5 Lateral Bracing of Links
15.6 Diagonal Brace and Beam Outside of Link
15.7 Beam-to-Column Connections
15.8 Requires Strength of Columns
15.9 Protected Zone
15.10 Demand Critical Welds