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technische universität dortmund

Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik

Sensor Technologies
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Neyer

Sensor Technologies

Sensor Technologies
Introduction

Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik

A. Neyer, SENSORS, Lecture 01

Folie 2

view sensors) Service-Robots (flexible. SENSORS. Lecture 01 Folie 3 . Neyer. registration of environment by sensors) Personal-Robots (universal and multimodal assistants) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.Sensors in Robotics Industry-Robots (fixed programming.

2. 500000 bit/s laser range finder front and back Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Neyer. 11 Mbit/s control PC with Linux and software for mobile robot and arm RS232.11b.500000 bit/s RS422. Lecture 01 odometry Folie 4 .1 Contact Sensors Service robot in a medical laboratory left and right hand drive PA-10 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries PA-10 arm controller ARCNET stationary PC connected to other laboratory equipment and to a database TCP/IP IEEE 802. 38400 bit/s controller C167 gyro RS422. SENSORS.

Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 5 .Service Robot in Space Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. SENSORS.

SENSORS. Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 6 .Transducer Transducer: Elementary device capable of converting a physical non-electrical input quantity (measurand) into an electrical output quantity Sensor: In general: Complex device consisting of transducer and processing unit.g. for direct connection to PC In this lecture: „Sensor“ = „Transducer“ Elementary physical device Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.Terminology: Sensor . e.

Coordinate Systems of Robots 1. SENSORS. Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 7 . Internal Sensors determine by internal measurements the actual coordinate system of the robot Υ φ Θ Polar Θ Y Υ Φ Z X Θ φ Z Cylindrical Cartesian Arm and elbow (resolute) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.

g. Neyer. External Sensors determine by external measurements e. Lecture 01 Folie 8 .Classification of Sensors for Robots 2. the position of the robot relative to the environment Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. SENSORS.

1 1.1.3 Angular Velocity 2.1.2. SENSORS.1 2.1 2.2. External Position Angular Position Linear Position 2.3 Contact Sensors Tactile Sensors Force Sensors Torque Sensors 1.1.2 2.1.2 2.2 1. Lecture 01 Folie 9 .2 Acceleration 2. Neyer.1 1.Classification of Sensors for Robots 1.1 2.2 2.2.3 Proximity Distance Velocity Noncontact Sensors Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.1. Internal 1.

umich. H. MA. L.Feng Where am I? Sensors and Methods for Mobile Robot Position zum Download unter: http://www-personal. Everett Sensors for moblile robots A.engin.edu/~johannb/my_book. Milton Keynes. England.R.de Lehre – Sensors Username: mstsensors Password: Feldstaerke    Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.Ruocco Robot sensors and transducers Open University Press.Literature  S. 1995 J.Borenstein. Neyer.R. Natick. SENSORS.Peters. Lecture 01 Folie 10 .1987 H.R.mikrostrukturtechnik.K.Everett.htm Skript: Sensor Technologies Download: www.

Lecture 01 Folie 11 . Neyer. SENSORS.Sensor Technologies Generalities about sensors Sensor characteristics Linearity Precision / Repeatability Sensitivity / Resolution Dynamic characteristics Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.

SENSORS. Lecture 01 Folie 12 . Neyer.Generalities  Sensor qualification according to output characteristics – Absolute sensor: Electrical ouput signal relates to input quantity with no ambiguity – Incremental sensor: Counting device with no absolute reference value – Analogue sensor: Output signal is continiuous and proportional to the physical input quantity – Digital sensor: At continuous input quantities the output signal can take only discrete values Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.

General Considerations on Sensor Transfer Characterstics Sensor Transfer Characteristics: Relation between measurand and electrical output signal Example: Relation between linear position (measurand) and voltage (electrical signal) at a potentiometer V o 2 1 1 Vs x 3 1 22 3 3 Physical construction xmax Schematic representation Potentiometer Transfer Characteristic: x  xmax Vs V0 Folie 13 Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Neyer. Lecture 01 . SENSORS.

Ideal / real characteristics V0 Voltage Vs x  xmax Position x xmax Vs V0 Typical items of sensor characteristics are:  Linearity Precision / Repeatability Sensitivity Resolution Dynamic characteristics (time response) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Lecture 01 Folie 14 . SENSORS. Neyer.

4% FSO 25 25 50 75 100 Measurand (% range) FSO: Full Scale Output a) Linear characteristic with ‚output saturation‘ b) Linear characteristic with +/.6% -3.Sensor Linearity 100 75 a) b) Output (%FSO) 50 Linearity error +8. Lecture 01 Folie 15 .deviations in % of FSO Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Neyer. SENSORS.

SENSORS.Linearity: Terminal line Straight line between the 0% and 100% points of the full range 100 Terminal Line Output (%FSO) 100 Measurand (% range) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 16 .

Lecture 01 Folie 17 . Neyer.Linearity: End-point line End-point line: Straight line between the end points of the calibration curve 100 Output (%FSO) Calibration curve 100 Measurand (% range) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. SENSORS.

Linearity: Best straight line Best straight line: Line midway between the two parallel straight lines closest together and envelope all output values 100 Output (%FSO) 100 Measurand (% range) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. Neyer. SENSORS. Lecture 01 Folie 18 .

Lecture 01 Folie 19 . Neyer.6% FSO 100 Measurand (% range) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.Precision Precision: Tolerance (in % of FSO) within which a measurement can be repeated 100 Run 1 Run 2 Output (%FSO) Precision within 6. SENSORS.

Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 20 . SENSORS.Hysteresis Hysteresis: Maximum difference in ouput values (in % of FSO) obtained by reversing the direction of measurement (between 0% and 100%) 100 Hysteresis 15% FSO Output (%FSO) 100 Measurand (% range) Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.

Lecture 01 .Sensor Sensitivity / Resolution Sensor sensitivity: Relation between variation of electrical output signal and corresponding variation of physical input quantity Sensor resolution: Maximum change of measurand ( in % of range) without variation of sensor output signal 100 Resolution Output (%FSO) 100 Measurand (% range) (resolution of wirewound potentiometer) Folie 21 Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. SENSORS. Neyer.

Neyer. Lecture 01 .Dynamic Charactersistics Dynamic characteristics: Response of the device to variations of the measurand with respect to time Frequency response: Electrical output response at sinusoid measurand varation for a certain frequency range 100 Low Pass characteristics Percentage amplitude ratio Band Pass characteristics Measurand Frequency (Hz) 100 Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A. SENSORS.

Neyer. Lecture 01 Folie 23 . SENSORS.Dynamic Charactersistics Step response: Electrical output response at step change of input measurand 100 90 Input Amplitude (% FSO) Output 10 Delay time Storage time Time Rise time Fall time Arbeitsgebiet Mikrostrukturtechnik A.