vkivgikghk

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

178 views

vkivgikghk

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- New Energy Technologies Issue 10
- 01591091
- Optp Electronics Device
- A Review on Photo Luminescence And
- The Natural Order Process in Terms of Modern Field Theory
- Physical Chemistry 2 Week 1
- Lecture Notes Physics Unit 1
- G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev- Comment on Lasetron
- 06 Nuclear Biology
- Chemistry Physical- Notes
- Alexandre Faure et al- Electron-impact rotational excitation of H3^+ : relevance for thermalization and dissociation dynamics
- Lecture Notes Physics Unit 1
- Automatic Railway Gate Controller Documentation
- Diracs maths
- APhO2001 Exp Prob
- Motor
- Engineering Physics 2
- Silicon Dioxide
- AdvSemi_lec2_2013-03-05
- A100

You are on page 1of 17

between the atoms

* Introducing periodicity into the wave solutions

Electron bands

Energy gaps

Effective Mass

V

+ + +

ION ION ION

POSITION

P

O

T

E

N

T

I

A

L

E

N

E

R

G

Y

V = 0

We simplify the potential,

in order to be able to

solve the problem in any

simple manner.

Potential core around the

atom.

We will eventually let

V and d 0 in the

problem.

X=0

X=a

X=d

Potential barrier

between the atoms.

We now solve the time-independent Schrdinger equation.

a x < < 0

0 < < x d

0

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

2 2

= +

=

o

dx

d

E

dx

d

m

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

2 2

=

= +

dx

d

E V

dx

d

m

2

2

) ( 2

E V m

=

( ) ( ),

ikx

i i

x e u x = ) ( ) ( x u d a x u

i i

= + +

2

2

2

mE

= o

Bloch Theorem: The eigenfunction of the wave equation for a

periodic potential are the product of a plane wave exp( )

times a function ( ) with the periodicity of the crystal lattice.

k

ik r

u r

0 ) ( 2

1

2 2

1

2

1

2

= + + o k

dx

du

ik

dx

u d

0 ) ( 2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

= + + u k

dx

du

ik

dx

u d

x

i

e u

o

=

0 ) ( 2

2 2

1

2

1

= + + k ik o o o 0 ) ( 2

2 2

2

2

2

= + k ik o o

o o i ik =

1

o = ik

2

x i ikx x i ikx

Be Ae u

o o +

+ =

1

x ikx x ikx

De Ce u

+

+ =

2

) 0 ( ) 0 (

2 1

u u =

D C B A + = +

0

2

0

1

= =

=

x x

dx

du

dx

du

D ik C ik

A k i A k i

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

o o

+ =

= +

) ( ) ( ) (

2 2 1

d u a u a u = =

d ik d ik

a k i a k i

De Ce

Be Ae

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

o o

+

+

+ =

= +

d x a x

dx

du

dx

du

= =

=

2 1

d ik d ik

a k i a k i

De ik Ce ik

Be k i Ae k i

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

o o

o o

+

+

+ =

= +

This simple b.c. enforces the

periodicity onto the solution.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

0

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

1 1 1 1

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

D

C

B

A

e ik e ik e k i e k i

e e e e

ik ik k i k i

d ik d ik a k i a k i

d ik d ik a k i a k i

o o

o o

o o

o o

Since the RHS is 0, there must be an intrinsic solution that

arises without any forcing functions.

This requires the determinant of the large square matrix to vanish:

| | 0 . det = coeff

)] ( cos[ ) cos( ) cosh( ) sin( ) sinh(

2

2 2

d a k a d a d + = +

o o

o

o

To simplify this, we take the limit V , d 0, in such a manner that Vd = Q.

1

) sinh(

, 1 ) cosh(

d

d

d

2

2

ka a a

d

= + o o

o

Wavevector k

The wavevector k is real only for certain allowed ranges of E,

which we illustrate by a graphical solution.

Applying Bloch theorem and solving Schrdinger equation yields

) cos(

) sin(

a

a

a

P o

o

o

+

In general, as the energy increases (oa increases), each

successive band gets wider, and each successive gap gets

narrower.

No solution

exists, k

2

<0

Regions where the equation is satisfied, hence where

the solution exists.

) cos( ) cos( ) sin(

2

2

ka a a

d

= + o o

o

1

-1

Boundaries are for ka = nt.

oa

oa

1

-1

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

The Kronig-Penney model

gives us DETAILED solutions

for the bands, which are

almost, but not, cosinusoidal

in nature.

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

Extended zone scheme

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

d

t

d

t

2

d

t

3

d

t

4

Reduced zone scheme

As energy increases, the bands get WIDER

and the gaps get NARROWER

The Electrons Effective Mass

The energy bands are closer to cosines than to a

free electron parabola.

Hence, we will define an effective mass, which will

vary with energy!

As a result, we must return to our basic

connection for momentum: v * m k =

We introduce our effective mass through

this defining equation, which relates the

crystal momentum to the real momentum.

2

2

Remember in free e Fermi gas,

2

c

=

k

k

m

For a wave packet the group velocity is given by:

=

In presence of an electric field E, the energy change is:

Now we can say:

where p is the electron's momentum.

Substitute the expression for the group velocity into this last

equation and we get:

From this follows the definition of effective mass:

effective mass is the mass it seems to carry in the semiclassical model of

transport in a crystal. It can be shown that, under most conditions,

electrons and holes in a crystal respond to electric and magnetic fields

almost as if they were free particles in a vacuum, but with a different mass.

This mass is usually stated in units of the ordinary mass of an electron m

e

(9.1110-31 kg).

The Electrons Effective Mass

Some values of electron effective mass:

GaAs 0.067

InAs 0.22

InSb 0.13

Si 0.19,0.91*

* Minima are not at center of zone, but are ellipsoids.

O.K. We have energy bands and we have gaps. How do we know

whether the material is an insulator, a metal, or a semiconductor?

Well, let us reconsider some of the things we have learned so far:

1. The crystal potential and the wave functions are periodic functions.

If the crystal has length L, then we require

2. Hence, we have that the exponential part of the wave function must

satisfy

There are N, where N is the number of atoms, values of n.

dx

d

dx

L d

L

) 0 ( ) (

) 0 ( ) (

=

=

N n

L

n

k

n kL

e e

ik ikL

,..., 2 , 1

2

2

1

0

= =

=

= =

t

t

3. This means that each band can hold 2N electrons (the factor of 2 is

for spin).

4. Thus, a material with only 1 (outer shell) electron per atom, such as

Li, K, Cu, Au, Ag, etc., will be a metal, since only one-half of the

available states are filled. The highest band (which we will call the

conduction band) is one-half filled. (We assume that, in 3D, the

material has a comparable band structure to the simple cubic.)

5. In Si, however, there are 8 atoms per FCC cell: 8 corner atoms,

shared between 8 cubes, gives 1; 6 face atoms, shared between 2

cubes each, give 3; and 4 internal atoms, which are not shared with

any other cube, gives 4. But, this is considering the basis. The basic

FCC cell has only 4 atoms, and each can contribute 8 states, so that

there are 32 states per unit cell in the band. Now, we have 8 atoms,

each with 4 electrons, and this means 32 electrons. Hence, all the

states in the band are filled, and Si should be an insulator!

6. An insulator has all the states in the topmost occupied band FULL.

Si is therefore an insulator.

7. But, most insulators have a band gap of 4-10 eV. Silicon has a gap of

only 1.0 eV, so electrons can be excited over the gap, and we call Si a

semiconductor.

8. In a metal, the number of electrons does not change with

temperature. The scattering does increase with temperature, so that

the conductance goes down with T.

9. In a semiconductor, the number of electrons increases exponentially

with temperature, so that even though the scattering increases, the

conductance increases with T.

- New Energy Technologies Issue 10Uploaded byblameitontherain9877
- 01591091Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Optp Electronics DeviceUploaded bykaran007_m
- A Review on Photo Luminescence AndUploaded byGene Xu
- The Natural Order Process in Terms of Modern Field TheoryUploaded byJuan Viche
- Physical Chemistry 2 Week 1Uploaded bySarah Alexander
- Lecture Notes Physics Unit 1Uploaded byMuhammad Younas Cheema
- G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev- Comment on LasetronUploaded byPocxa
- 06 Nuclear BiologyUploaded byAdrian Stan
- Chemistry Physical- NotesUploaded bymajji satish
- Alexandre Faure et al- Electron-impact rotational excitation of H3^+ : relevance for thermalization and dissociation dynamicsUploaded by4534567
- Lecture Notes Physics Unit 1Uploaded byrajanshansai
- Diracs mathsUploaded bypipul36
- Automatic Railway Gate Controller DocumentationUploaded byshantu_11
- APhO2001 Exp ProbUploaded byPopovici Dragan
- MotorUploaded byalysonmicheaala
- Engineering Physics 2Uploaded byDhanalakshmi Vadivelan
- Silicon DioxideUploaded byNgeke Keke
- AdvSemi_lec2_2013-03-05Uploaded byAlex Bilik
- A100Uploaded byAleksei Avila
- Lesson PlanUploaded byLpicc001
- Electrrob Band StructureUploaded byTeka Kam
- Tesla vs EinsteinUploaded byCaleb Thomas
- Bab 5 1234Uploaded byUli Artha
- Kp581.Chemistry.today..July.2016Uploaded byLAVTOLO
- WINSEM2017-18 ECE1007 TH TT715 VL2017185004598 Reference Material I the Semiconductor Injection LaserUploaded byBharghav Roy
- SEE 1063 Week 2 Intro to Semi & PN JunctionUploaded byBAHARUDIN BURAH
- Resource 167888Uploaded byMeyengquo Matinong
- Teaching projectUploaded byLoraine Tangalin
- Structure of atom_ Discovery of electrons, protons and neutrons – Open Teaching Project.pdfUploaded byLoraine Tangalin

- Corporate Banking Final Course Outline - CB 2018Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Key Global M2M TrendsUploaded byMudit Singh
- Utf8''Global WPA, LSG and FT, And NMS Market 2015-2019Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Yearly PI Reports 2016Uploaded byMudit Singh
- QPIR_Oct_to_Dec-15Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Indicator Reports Dec 16 07042017Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Utf8''Global M2M Market 2012-2016Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Pir Reports Dec 26032018Uploaded byMudit Singh
- y Pir Report 04052018Uploaded byMudit Singh
- 1. MMII Course Outline 2017-19 1 Oct 2017Uploaded byMudit Singh
- IMac Green PowerPoint TemplateUploaded byMudit Singh
- Colored-Menu-Restaurant-PowerPoint(landscape).pptxUploaded byMudit Singh
- 2 0144 Cycle Diagram 8 Stages PGo 16 9Uploaded byMudit Singh
- 2713Uploaded byMudit Singh
- Ground Rules PioneerUploaded byMudit Singh
- Travel PowerPoint TemplateUploaded byMudit Singh
- Corporate OrangeUploaded byMudit Singh
- 1-0002.pptUploaded byMudit Singh
- Passport_Stats_14-10-2017_2049_GMTUploaded byMudit Singh
- Clockwork OrangeUploaded byMudit Singh
- BlueUploaded byMudit Singh
- A Hand Holding a ThingUploaded byMudit Singh
- Session 1IntroductionUploaded byMudit Singh
- Background InformationUploaded byMudit Singh
- Basil TurfUploaded byMudit Singh
- IIMHacks - Randeep BaruahUploaded byMudit Singh

- ch18-ED.pptUploaded byAnonymous NfxLyygnck
- Energy BandsUploaded byPrafull B
- Analytical Modelling of Density of States of CNTUploaded byAyaz Masud Sezan
- Density of StatesUploaded byvicky_ani1986
- Weyl Semimetal NbPUploaded byforwardho
- Ivan Knez PhD Thesis - InAs-GaSb TIUploaded by1q2s3c
- 8131710688.epubUploaded byDebajyoti Datta
- QEP P2.11Uploaded bykilu
- 6. Kronig Penney Model & Effective MassUploaded byMudit Singh
- 01 Effective MassUploaded byRene Bertacourt
- Solid State Physics - 04 GrapheneUploaded byMassimo Giordano
- Electro Engineering MaterialUploaded bywww.bhawesh.com.np
- Size Effects on Semiconductor NanoparticlesUploaded byWick
- EDC_notesUploaded byBnr Goud
- Electronic Transpot 2d GrapheneUploaded byjim
- ps2Uploaded byHaemin Song
- Colin M. Hurd Auth., C. L. Chien, C. R. Westgate Eds. the Hall Effect and Its ApplicationsUploaded bymordon
- NST 621 Nanomaterials.pptUploaded byMohammad Rameez
- Exciton Confinement in InAs InP Quantum Wires and Quantum Wells in the Presence of a Magnetic FieldUploaded bytransfinitum
- 2.P.3.Electronic Properties of Solids SummaryUploaded bypaulscholes1822
- Electroengineering MaterialUploaded byAshish Tuladhar
- Discovery of Lowest Density, Two Dimensional Fermion Liquid, Ever Found in NatureUploaded bySuman Debnath
- MEtal NanoparticlesUploaded byPedro Castro
- Assignment QuestionsUploaded byKrishnamoorthyPalani
- Kulite Pressure Transducer HandbookUploaded bypmud123
- Physics of Low Dim SolutionsUploaded bySergio Aguilera Cheko
- Energy Levels Hydrostatic Quantum DotsUploaded byHernando Caicedo
- Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterialsUploaded byGustavo
- 물리전자 Chapter 02Uploaded byfourier76
- The Gunn EffectUploaded bydesta18

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.