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WELCOME TO CHINA !!!

The flag of China was officially adopted on October 1, 1949. The red of the Chinese flag symbolizes the communist

revolution, and it's also the traditional color of the people.


The large gold star represents communism, The four smaller stars represent the social classes of the people.

In addition, the five stars together reflect the importance placed


on the number five in Chinese thought and history.

CHINESE LITERATURE 1000 B.C.- A.D.1890 Know contentment


And you will suffer no disgrace; Know when to stop And you will meet with no danger. You can then endure. - the Tao Te Ching

LITERARY CONTEXT
Poetry is a part of everyday life throughout the history of China Poets have been among the most highly regarded members of Chinese Society 2 nd -12 th centuries A.D. the main Chinese poetic form was the Shih Ching ( The Book of Songs)
Even the number of lines , each of which has the same number of words Often expressed personal emotions Many have brooding or trouble tone , but can express contentment

CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
Contrast between Chinese and Western modes of philosophic thinking Western philosophers seek out the being of things, the essential reality lying behind appearances
Chinese principal and establishment and cultivation of harmonious relationships within their social structures Chinese thinking is far more concrete , this worldly and above all, practical.

CULTURAL CONTEXT
Chinese attitudes and beliefs were shaped by 3 religious and philosophical schools:

Taoism Confucianism

Buddhism

TAOISM
Tao- path or the way

Stresses freedom , simplicity and the


mythical contemplation (Tao) of nature

Force that controlled the universe


Beyond the scope of human concerns , but can see its workings by

observing nature

TAOISM
Avoid human desires Not educating Not honoring men of worth or

encourage cleaver to act


Cause jealousy and greed Opposite of Confucianism

CONFUCIANISM
How people act moral behavior Social relations based on subordination: family ruled by authoritarian father , state ruled by authoritarian king. Respect and obey those with superior status However, governed by the concept ren with a loving attitude towards others

CONFUCIANISM

Tried to teach students to become true gentlemen- morally and spiritually Must conduct oneself in a virtuous manner, those in power serve as models

Heaven is the supreme moral


authority , which dictates how one must live.

BUDDHISM
To lead a moral life

To be mindful and aware of thoughts


and actions To develop wisdom and

understanding
Life is sorrow and sorrow is caused by desires Rid self of desires

Does not claim to be God Attain enlightenment through meditation

BUDDHISM
Solutions to our problems are within

ourselves
Beliefs are incorporated into poetry through symbols, imagery and

language of Chinese Literature


Quietude and calmness is a central notion in Buddhist thought

TRADITION AND CULTURE

CHINESE WEDDING TRADITIONS


Red is the Color of Weddings in China Red is central to the wedding theme of China. It signifies love, joy and prosperity and is used in a variety of

ways in Chinese wedding traditions.


The bride's wedding down is of ten red, as are the wedding invitations, and wedding gif t boxes or envelopes for cash gifts. Even the bride and groom's homes are decorated in red on the wedding day.

CHINESE FESTIVALS
Event: Chinese New Year Date: The first day of a year in lunar calendar, usually between late Jan and early Feb

Activities: fireworks display, visiting


and greeting, Yangke dancing, lion and dragon dancing, holding temple

fairs and many other great folkloreinspection events.

CHINESE FESTIVALS
This was a time for the Chinese to

congratulate
themselves through

each
on

other

and
passed to

having

another year, a time

finish out the old, and to welcome in


the new year. Common expressions heard at this

time are: GUONIAN to have made it


through the old year, and BAINIAN to congratulate the new year.

CHINESE FESTIVALS
Event: Lantern Festival Date: 15th of

the fir st lunar month


Activities: Lanterns expositions, garden par ties, firework displays and folk dances. The New Year celebrations ended on the 15th of the Fir st Moon with the Lantern Festival. In the legend, the Jade Emperor in Heaven was so angered at a town for killing his favorite goose, that he decided to destroy it with a storm of fire.

CHINESE FESTIVALS
Event: Dragon Boat Festival Date: Date: 5th day of the 5th lunar month Activities: Dragon Boat races and eating Zong Zi (pyramid shaped rice wrapped in reed or bamboo leaves

Chinese jade ornament with dragon and phoenix design, late Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC-482 BC).

CHINESE CUISINE IS NOTED FOR THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS:


Vegetables are the main ingredients. The Chinese people like well prepared food. Chinese also like to eat together, a tradition that can be traced back a long time ago. Tea drinking is an integral part of Chinese life and the Chinese food experience.

EDUCATION
A good education has always been highly valued in China, as the people believe that education ensures not only the future and development of the individual but also the family and the countr y as a whole.

The great master Confucius taught that 'it is a pleasure to learn something and to tr y it

out at inter vals'. Similarly, numerous


students have been convinced that 'reading books excels all other career s'.

EDUCATION
As far back as the Shang Dynasty (16th century BC - 11th century BC), inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells were the simple records of teaching and learning. In the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 771 BC), nobles built schools to teach their children, as their of fsprings would be the of ficials of the future, while those who were gifted but of poor families could but dream of approaching state af fairs.

EDUCATION
The development of education system led to a

form of evaluation that became the means by


which dynastic China appointed those with talents as of ficials. In general, this process can be divided into three periods - 'chaju' and 'zhengpi' in the Han Dynasty, the ' jiupin zhongzheng' system from Han to the Nor thern and Southern Dynasties, and the Imperial Examination which sur vived from the Sui Dynasty (589 61 8) right through to the last feudal dynasty Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911).

THE CHINESE LANGUAGE


C h in ese ( ) co mpr ises of se ve n m a in d ia lects,

M an dar in ( ), Ca ntones e ( , ), Hakk a (


) , W u ( ) , M i n ( ), Xi a n g ( ), a n d G a n ( ) . Th e var iet y of M anda ri n base d on the spe ech i n the ca pita l Bei j ing is th e offic ia l natio na l la nguage of

m a inl and

Ch in a and is ter med

Ptn ghu , Co m mon

l a n g u age ( ). The de facto com mo n lang uage in H ong Kong an d o ve rseas C hi nes e co mm un ities is C anton ese . Amongst the off icia l l ang uag es of Tai wa n are M anda ri n,

Ta i wa n e s e, a n d H a k k a .

THE CHINESE LANGUAGE


All varieties of Chinese belong to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Members of the Sinitic family are typically tonal, meaning that dif ferent tones, or intonations, distinguish words that otherwise are pronounced identically. Chinese by origin is monosyllabic. The vocabulary of dialects more recent in the linguistic tree such are Mandarin tend to become more polysyllabic (compound words) as an adjustment to the loss of a number of sounds compared to ancient Chinese.

THE CHINESE ALPHABET


In the Chinese alphabet, small letters are written like capital J ji letters, and vice versa.
A B C D E F G H I i b x d y i f j i ch i
K L M N O ki i l i m i n

P
Q R S T U V W X Y Z

p
j w i r i s t y w wi du bi r wi y k s w i zi d

CHINESE MONEY AND COUNTING

The 100 yuan note has pictures of four of the founders of the People's Republic of China. From right to left these are: Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and Zhu De.

CHINESE MARTIAL ARTS

Chinese martial arts , popularly referred to as kung fu or gung fu, is a series of fighting styles which has developed over a long historical period in China. Nowadays, it is regarded as a traditional sport gaining more and more popularity and even stands as a representative for Chinese culture.