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Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties

Basic Model Of Communication


1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels 4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding 5-Feedback

Senders & Receivers

Each have goals and objectives The sender may want to change the receivers mind The receiver may not want to have his mind changed

Transmitters and Receptors

is the equipment by which information is sent Information can be sent verbally and nonverbally

Messages and Channels

are the vehicles by which information is communicated. direct expressions symbolic representations

Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding

Decoding is the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into interpretations that can be understood. Meanings are the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin individuals, and act as a set of filters through which the decoded messages are interpreted. Encoding is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form

is the process by which the receiver reacts to the senders message It is necessary to let the sender know that the message was actually received, encoded, ascribed with the same meaning that the sender intended


(a) (b) (c)


It is impossible to avoid communicating Communication is largely nonverbal Context affects communication Meanings are in people, not in words


Communication is irreversible Noise affects communication Communication is circular Creating common goal is essential Communication has effects


Basic ways in which people send and receive messages

Verbal Messages
Messages sent verbally are messsages expressed in words The science of semantics

Nonverbal Messages
About 65 percent of the meanings people get from a communication Voice Physical Movements Space

your lips tell me no,no but there is yes,yes in your eyes


increase the probabilty that communication will be successful Language Format Style

Appropriate language is the language that has been adapted to the receiver while retaining a naturalness with respect to the sender

Depends on the receiver (audience) and on the purpose.

Formal/informal, Simple/complex,



Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers Represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware.

I know my name, and so do you.

Adjectives selected only by the participant, but not by any of their peers Represents information about the participant of which their peers are unaware

I have not told you, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is.

Blind Spot
Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers

we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot.

Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers

I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place.

55 adjectives used to describe the participant

able accepting adaptabl e bold brave calm caring cheerful clever complex confiden t dependable dignified energetic extroverte d friendly giving happy helpful idealistic independen t ingenious intelligent introverted kind knowledgeabl e logical loving mature modest nervous observant organized patient powerful proud quiet reflective relaxed religious responsive searching selfassertive selfconscious

sensible sentimental shy silly spontaneous sympathetic tense trustworthy warm wise witty


Aye Bilge AKIR

Tangible Differences
Gender Age Race National or Cultural Origin Socioeconomic Class Education Level Urban or Rural Residence

Major influence on the way we communicate with others. When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident. Women are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.

Young people and old people communicate in different ways. We do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know the speakers age. A persons age or gender is not important in judging the truth or wisdom of what that person says .

Their maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make a Generation Gap inevitable.

Intangible Differences
Perception Motivation Tunnel Vision Ego Defensiveness Negative Emotions

Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment. Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed. Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called Selective Perception


Mother: Will you straighten up your room? Teenager: Why? Whats messy?

Selective Perception

Allows us not only to block out things that are there, but also to see more things than are there. Leads us to make our own reality! Most clearly seen in the human tendency to stereotype others.

A Motive is a Reason For Action!

The most strongest motivations are those that are most personal. We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill, ambition...etc It can be both positive or negative.

A closed way of thinking, especially about abstract topics, such as religion and politics.

The person with tunnel vision is one who has firmly fixed ideas The opposite side is open-mindedness Person with tunnel vision has attitude seems to say; Ive already made up my mind, Dont confuse me with the facts!!!

A response pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personal attact .
A self-centered communication More than just being selfish

Almost always obstacles to good communication! Especially true if the emotion is uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Distractions Semantic Problems Absence Of Feedback Climate Status And Power Differences

It occurs where people are constantly coming in and leaving for one reason or another, and experinced the frustration that is created by this distracting traffic flow.

Semantic Problems
Distortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of words or expressions which have a different meaning for the sender or receiver. Created when communicators use technical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specialization.

communications are likely to parallel the differences in power.

Status And Power Differences in Differences

Imbalance or asymmetry in negotiating power leads the high power party to perform significantly better than the low power party.


Be Exact Use the word is carefully Avoid Overgeneralization Be sensitive to connotative

meaning Do not to overuse you or your Count from 1 to 10


Recognize that you dont know all the
answers to all questions

Always remember that what others Focus on common interests rather

than differences

may not mean the way we think they mean it

Think positive

QUESTIONING For clarifying communications, and eliminating noise and distortion .




ROLE REVERSAL Understand the others position by actively arguing his position to his satisfaction.



What is Business Communication?

sending and receiving of messages in an organization



Characteristics of Business Communication

Complex, Competitive, Group oriented, Task oriented, Data based .

Telephone People-to-people communication Typing People-to-paper communication Copying Paper-to-paper transfer Storing Paper-to-file transfer Information retrieval Files-to-people transfer

Carter and Huzan(1981), studied the nature of a business

Employees Responsibility
They should serve as;

Interpreter Humanizer Promoter

Communication Skills
Listening Writing Interviewing Group discussion Interpersonal communication Public speaking Nonverbal communication Problem solving Telephone communication

Communication Ethics
Communication ethics is the consideration of the rightness of wrongness of a given communication act.

Communication Networks
CEO Vice-President, Auxiliary Services Vice-President, Research and Development Vice-President, Manufacturing Engineering Vice-President, Sales Marketing Vice-President, Services Technical Assistance


Production development

Personal computers

CRX 1000 PC

Individual customers


Product refinement

XT computers

CRX 2000 XT

Business applications

AT Computers

CRX 3000 AT

Communication Networks (contd)

Line networks normally involve

superior-subordinate relationships.

Staff relationships between the

members of an organization are most often advisory in nature.

Formal Networks

Formal networks are legitimate and

often indicated by an organization chart that displays who answers to whom. Formal networks indicate a unity of command. Formal communication networks contain more of the written, predictable, and routine communications
Vice-President, Auxiliary Services Maintenance Supplies


Vice-President, Research and Development

Vice-President, Manufacturing Engineering

Vice-President, Sales Marketing

Vice-President, Services Technical Assistance

Production development

Personal computers

CRX 1000 PC

Individual customers

Product refinement

XT computers

CRX 2000 XT

Business applications

AT Computers

CRX 3000 AT

Informal Networks

Informal networks are unofficial channels through which information passes in an organization. Informal networks are faster, richer, and often more accurate, and communication is more likely to be face-to-face.

Span Of Control
The smaller the span of control, the more communication access each employee will have to the supervisor.

Conrad (1990); Because using formal communication networks takes so much time and effort, people may have choose to not communicate at all if they have no formal channels available. Even gossip and rumors usually provide accurate information. Such networks are called grapevines.

Information Flow in Business Organizations


Division Manager Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head

Division Manager Departme nt Head Departme nt Head

Division Manager Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head

Departme nt Head

(a) Tall Organization structure



Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

Manag er

(b) Flat Organization structure

Information Flow in Business Organizations

Downward communication occurs when a

manager or supervisor sends a message to one or more subordinates. Upward communication occurs when messages flow from subordinates to managers or from supervisors to executives. Horizontal communication occurs between people at the same level, or between people at corresponding levels in different divisions.

Information Flow in Business Organizations

Organizational theorists Tannenbaum and Schmidt, displays the range of communication styles

The more you control, the less you involve; The more you involve, the less you control.

Conferring, you want to learn from them yet the control the interaction somewhat Collaborating,you and your audience are working together to come up with the content persuading

Instructing, explaining.
Do not need your audiences opinions.

You want your audience to do something different

Thanks For Attendance!!!