(Conservation mgt Issues, & National challenges)

BY: Ghad Mugiri Senior Warden -Environmental Compliance & impact monitoring (Oil exploration)

• • • • • • • • Fact sheet About MFCA and general UWA functions What is oil? Attributes of oil/gas exploration General environmental challenges in Uganda Environmental challenges related to oil & gas Management of oil exploration (principles) Current impacts Way forward (Discussion/debate)

Are you aware that ……..
Uganda the Pearl of Africa
– Spectacular snow-capped peaks at equator – Tropical rainforests, open savannah ecosystems supporting a high diversity of habitats, species and ecological processes. – 10 National Parks, 12 Wildlife Reserves, 13 wildlife sanctuaries and 5 Community Wildlife Areas – About 70 percent of all national parks and wildlife reserves lie within the western arm of the Great Rift Valley – A number of forest reserves also lie within this rift

Uganda A Biodiversity HotSpot

 Over 5 Ecological Zones of Africa converge on Uganda. Far much higher compared to other Countries on the African Continent  Over 53% of the Mountain Gorillas in the world  Over 1,000 Bird species

(over 10% of Global Diversity)
 Of 1500 bird species in East Africa, 72% are found in Uganda  Host to over 7% of Global Mammal Species Diversity
Where the world becomes Alive

The Murchison Falls

•Gazetted in 1952, Murchisonon Falls National Park is the largest national park in Uganda. •Ccovering an area of 3877 sq. kms •Main representation of the Sudanian regional centre of endemism in East Africa. •Important Bird Areas - Delta area •Ramsar Site – Buligi peninsula and Delta area


The unique Murchison Falls
•last viable breeding populations of Nile crocodile and Rothschild's giraffe in Uganda •The Murchison Falls are unquestionably the greatest and most dramatic feature in the region manifesting the works of the Great Rift valley •The breeding areas for the regionally endemic shoebill and the saddle-bill stork

Rothschild's giraffe near one of the oil well in Buligi circuit

Implementation of UWA statutory functions (Departments)

• In an attempt to ensure accomplishment of the functions; • Law enforcement – Resource protection • Community Conservation – Park-community relations • Tourism – Visitor services and guidance • Research & Monitoring – resource inventory • Support services – Accounts and administration – Engineering services (Civil & Mechanical)

Over 70% of oil wells in PAs
Exploration wells
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Waki B-1 Turaco-1 Mputa-1 Waraga-1 Nzizi-1 Kingfisher-1 Ngassa-1 Taitai-1 Ngege-1 Karuka-1 Kigogole-1 Kasamene-1 Ngiiri-1 Jobi-1 Rii-1 Nsoga-1 Awaka-1 Iti-1 Wahrindi-1 Ngara-1

1938 2002 2006 2006 2006 2006 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009

Appraisal wells 23. Turaco-2 24. Turaco-3 25. Mputa-2 26. Mputa-3 27. Mputa-4
28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 35. 36. 37.

2003 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2010 2009 2010 2011 2010 2010

38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Jobi East 1 Jobi 2 Jobi East 5 Gunya Ngege D

2011 2011 2011 2011 2011

Nzizi-2 Kingfisher-2 Kingfisher-3 Karuka Mputa -5 Kigogole-3 Nzizi – 3 Ngassa-2 Mpyo1 Mpyo 3 Ngagi Warthog 2

National Parks & Wildlife Reserves in the Oil Exploration areas in Uganda


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 0 11








Why should UWA be involved
• Oil exploration is taking place in wildlife protected areas (UWA estate) • Out of 22 PAs oil is believed to occur in about 11 PAs (table) • Overlap and in sensitive ecosystems • Oil exploration and production activities result into impacts that interfere with wildlife management • Oil exploration and production may interfere with tourism activities

Oil exploration sites MFNP

What is oil?
• It is a hydro-carbon/Petroleum - a fossil fuel and non-renewable energy • It is also called crude oil • It is called fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago • It is called a non-renewable energy source - it takes millions of years to form

Oil expl and wildlife
• The petroleum products ( gasoline, fertilizer, insecticide, medicine, Detergents, deodorants etc,) have helped people all over the worldTransport, industry, electricity

But there is a trade-off! Both the petroleum production process and petroleum products impact on wildlife behaviour, ranging patterns, digestion systems hence affecting other natural processes

The Oil / Petroleum Products
• Ink • Heart valves •Crayons •Parachutes •Enamel •Antiseptics • Purses • Deodorant • Panty hose • Oil filters • Pajamas • Cassettes • Fishing rods • Electrical tapes • Floor wax • Tires • Hand lotion • Toot brushes • Guitar strings • Movie film • Sunglasses • Glue • Artificial limbs • Ball point pen • Golf balls • Contact lens • Dice • Trash bags • Shampoo • Cameras • Nail polish • Dash boards • DVDs • Balloons • Paint brushes • Foot balls • Dyes • Antihistamines • Skis • Perfumes • Shoe polish • Insecticides • cold cream • Detergents • Gasoline • Kerosene

Environmental Challenges • Modernization
– Pressures to use Genetic material – Resource Utilization – Dumping
• Electronic-Waste (E-Waste) • Equipment

• Climate Change
– Rainfall and flooding – Drought – Lightening???

• The health of Water bodies
– pollution – silting – Re-invasion of rivers and lakes by water weeds

• Population pressure • Discoveries (new)
– Uranium – Oil and Gas

Environmental challenges
• Operations being carried out in sensitive ecosystems • Potential/rather perceived disruption of the tourism industry • Drill waste management and disposal –need for a consensus for consumer products • Interrupted /inadequate restoration (well re-entering, EWT) • Un-documented baseline for existing natural resources • Poorly developed EIAs, hence poor EMP that is not practical • Ensuring effective and efficient compliance monitoring

Operations in sensitive ecosystems

All wild animals-potentially dangerous
• They are disturbed (noise, heavy human traffic) • Flight distance is not observed (usually hippos, elephants and buffalo) • Naturally are defensive in approach when injured or/and their life threatened) • They are protective of the young ones(like lionesses and elephants) • May be a real accidents

If home range disturbed…….
• Becoming aggressive leading to harm or even kill • Change their raging patterns • Change their breeding patterns - small population that cannot control the habitat. • Therefore leading to habitat transition. • Disturbance is a stress agent and therefore cause diseases to occur • Can cause extinction of species

Sensitive wildlife ecosystems
• Wild animals manage home ranges
– Core area (food, mate/breeding grounds, water, concealments. – Dispersal areas – Resting areas

Wildlife has the right of way
• When you meet animals- STOP and allow them to pass • Noise – DO NOT shout and chase away animals • Hooting – DO NOT hoot (Sound a horn) in the Park • Avoid over speeding (Max. speed limit is 40Km/hour)

• Fire- changes the habitat composition causing non-palatable vegetation to grow and this affects animal population. • Burn plastics-chemical agents called DIOXINS which disrupt the ozone layer • Habituations of wild animals • Litter-Litter is unsightly in the environment
– Contaminates the environment (Pollution) – Causes disease outbreak if not handled properly-degradable waste

• • • • Do NOT drive off the tracks Mgt limits night travels Camp at designated campsites Fire arms and ammunitions are prohibited in the Park

Land-take & Access
• Footprint of camp and operations
– 100mx100m, 500x500m (10-25yrs?) – Vegetation clearance; disturbance & relocation of wildlife; temporary to permanent

• Access: roads, barges, airstrips
– Opens up previously closed areas – Invitation to increasing traffic – Lack of effective culverting around drill sites

• Need for restoration post-operations
LJ 26

Buseruka hydro-power dam under construction-KWR

Impacts on communities
• Population influx: fishing villages grown, work with seismic, construction and security firms • Land rights & compensation • Increasing population requires increasing resources - firewood, water supplies, hunting • Product transportation:
– tanker fire incident - Sat 12th Jan, dozens dead (stolen fuel, police chase) – Pipeline: wealth passing by
LJ 28

Noise & light issues
• Drilling and production are 24hr operations • Associated community & wildlife disturbance • Camp lights - terrestrial & marine species • Roar from flaring • Compressed air gun detonation (seismic survey) & acoustic resonation through water
– Its unclear how species are impacted and will react to noise/vibration impacts LJ 29

Liquid discharges
• ‘Mud’ components and chemicals added to water to aid drilling
– As drilled hole gets deeper, more mud required

• Formation water during drilling • Produced water from oil reservoir
– Includes hydrocarbons, highly saline, heavy metal components, – Volume can increases to 90% water-cut

• Disposal to surface water, evaporation or soak-aways, or… • Potential to re-inject into the reservoir to maintain pressure….zero discharge



Solid wastes
• Drill bit penetration generates cuttings or rock brought up through wellbore • Sludge residue following waste water evaporation • Oil from testing not flared e.g. Waraga • Camp wastes • Disposal to …. where?
– Avoid general dumping – Special wastes to incinerator at Nakasongola
• Questions over capability & capacity to take types and volumes of wastes anticipated



Impacts from oil spills
• Additional pressure on already pressured sensitive environments
– Low energy lake environment – Seasonality important: Breeding, migration, germination

• Heavy oil: organisms killed through smothering
– …wetlands/marsh/mangrove decimation, sediments

• Toxicity through ingestion by wildlife
– Implications for bioaccumulation through food chain

• Contamination of fish & shellfish
– Concern regarding tainting of flesh, carcinogenic compounds – Reality vs perception
• Potential community food & export implications
LJ 32

Seismic surveys
Potential impacts Vegetation clearing for camp Foot print Habitat disturbance and home range Strategies Mandatory EIA and stringent included in EIA compliance monitoring with EIA provisions Restoration clause by the company Routine PA regulations apply including speed limits Ineffective restoration Population influx (casuals) Usually covers wide area although for a short period Camp solid waste Ecologically friendly dynamite in shot hole Waste management plan compulsory and site specific Sometimes tourist circuit closed

Some of the impacts
• Impact on vegetation- clearing the vegetation at drill sites and camp sites, result in loss of habitat for wildlife, loss of important plant species, expose soil resulting into soil erosion - minimise vegetation clearance as much as possible - restrict the devt’ in the agreed area - regenerate the site after activity • Impact on air quality- due to vehicles, dust, and other emissions - sprinkle water during dry season - observe speed limit - ensure good maintenance of the vehicles • Solid and liquid waste –due to camp establishment- if not well handled, have a potential to pollute ground water – plastics – garbage – sewage – toxic materials (used oil, fuel leakages, oil filters, containers) – washing bays – fuel spill

• Solid waste- mitigation - litter in approved places - ferry the plastics and other non-biodegradable waste out of the park • Human waste during the survey- this pollutes the habitat for wildlife and may result in diseases - use mobile toilets • Disturbance and scare of animals due to presence of people in the park- this may change their behavior and disrupt their feeding and breeding habits and interfere with migratory routes. - keep a distance from wild animals - don’t feed the wild animals

Management challenges specific to MFCA

Direct effects of Illegal activities
• Poaching- affects populations of wildlife leading to extinctions • Cutting of trees and illegal collection of firewood, charcoal burning, pit sawing all cause changes in the habitat. • Influx of people into the Park. • Illegal entry into the Park is an offence and offenders are liable to prosecution

Major spots for illegal activities

Illegal activities Contd
• Night movements should be avoided - wild animals are more active at night • Collection, possession transportation of wildlife & wildlife products (plants, animals, trophies) is an offense • Aliens-some have poisonous chemicals while others suppress plant growth • Domestic animals share common disease with animals (anthrax, store diseases – reservoirs)

Elephant poaching for ivory

Good practices
• • • • • • Reporting and communication Clean-ups an decommissioning Comply with the approved EIA conditions Prompt response to oil spills Transparency-self reporting Observance of international standards

Challenges in managing

Drill equipment at Ngaraa-

Seismic surveys – laying of Geo-phones along cut lines

Opening up virgin areas

Co- existence of tourism and oil activities
• Tourism is the main source of income for wildlife management • Anything that interferes with tourism therefore interferes with wildlife management • Tourist arrivals in the parks has been increasing steadily • Tourists are interested in pristine nature of the Pas • How will UWA ensure that these activities are done with minimal impacts to tourism?

Tourists scramble to view a lion

Dead frogs, snake etc in waste pit at Ngassa 1mud pit

Interference with large carnivores

Survival of wildlife amidst activities

Advanced poaching skills

A typical drilling site (above) and mud pit (right)

Un restored well site with porous fence at Karuka (Bugungu WR)

Watering grass at a restored site

Site just restored at Jobi 1 in MFNP

Capacity building for UWA staff

Inadequate restoration of sites at Mputa (KWR) & Jobi (MFNP)

Limited financial resources
• Legal perspective-MFNP has a RAMSAR site (International reputation for conventions/treaties) • Monitor compliance
- Increased field visits - Increased demand for more staff

• Develop alternative infrastructure
– New trails – New accommodation facilities

Oil vehicles cue for the ferry

Angara site

• High expectations from local people and politicians • Negative attitude of local people towards PAs – prefer oil than protected areas • Negative reporting from the press (have no correct information) • Press releases and incorrect information • Reactive responses for routine PA mgt issues-elephant crop raiding

Improved green burner still with incomplete combustion

Oil spills even after improved burner in Mputa 5

Security issues
• Wild fire outbreaks-potential hazard @ well-head (pressure/blowouts) • Spills that are considered minor • The military presence to provide security for oil installations • Areas prone to terrorism attacks • Communities still regard the park as their source of food • Disguised terrorists seeking for jobs

Ongoing programs activities
• Daily compliance monitoring at active drill sites- Ranger deployment with check list • Managing sub-contractors –induction trainings bi-weekly) • Ecological monitoring at four (4) selected sites (Jobi E1, J2, JE5 and JE4) • Training of oil emergency spill response teams and other regular refresher on-job training • Study commissioned by UWA to study impacts of oil exploration on tourism • Draft guidelines (awaiting BOT) • Perceived problem elephants (four herds collared to monitor home range) and lions • GMP review kick-started for MFNP and KWR

UWA staff rescue a giraffe from a snare

UWA Vet staff rescue lion from snare

All inclusive activities

UWA Staff attempting to put off fire manually near an oil well head

Other administrative challenges
• Reduction of traffic for oil company visa vi international standards • Transition priorities (e.g Heritage-TullowTotal) • Confidentiality of business programs • Opened drill pads that are not restored • Sourcing of murram • Manpower issues

Non-compliance to laws
• • • • • • • • • • • Fines, penalties and deterrent punishments Off-track driving- $ 150 per vehicle Over speeding – U.Shs. 100,000 per vehicle per offence Accident fees for animal kills - $ 500 Illegal entry into the Park - $ 50 Specimen collection - $ 50per kilogram Liquid samples - $ 50 per litre Hooting Driving after 7.00pm and before 6.00am Introduction of alien species Likely illegal activities e.g poaching, firewood collection

• More time to understand impacts of oil and gas exploration in sensitive wildlife area. • UWA policy is that the two can co-exits once EIA conditions complied with. • Stakeholders roles consciously and routinely implemented. • Potential for increased revenues from Tourism and authentic values are still valid ventures. • As we move into Devpt & production, impacts and challenges may increase

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