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Advanced Nursing Research

Albert Einstein

The qualitative method investigates the why and how of things, not just what,where, when.
The qualitative researcher is interested in illumination and understanding rather than causal determination or prediction. Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviours, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles.

Obtrusive Methods
Semi structured interviews In-depth interviews Focus Group Discussions

Participatory Action Research Narrative and Life History Participant observation

Unobtrusive Methods
Simple observation Document analysis (written records) Audio-visual

Text analysis
Material culture Auto-ethnography (object, subject and researcher)

Sampling methods used in qualitative research are:

purposive sampling quota sampling, and snowball sampling

Purposive Sampling
most common sampling strategy.
according to pre-selected criteria relevant to a

particular research question

Sample sizes depend on the resources and time

available, as well as the studys objectives.

Quota Sampling
The researcher decides while designing the study

how many people with which characteristics to include as participants. Characteristics such as age, place of residence, gender, class, profession, marital status, use of a particular contraceptive method, HIV status, etc. are taken as inclusion criteria. The criteria chosen by the researcher allow him to focus on people he thinks would be most likely to experience, know about, or have insights into the research topic.

Snowball Sampling
Also known as chain referral sampling. In this method, participants or informants with

whom contact has already been made use their social networks to refer the researcher to other people who

could potentially participate in or contribute to the


1. Ethnography

is a description and interpretation of a cultural or social group or system. The research examines the groups observable and learned patterns of behavior, customs, and ways of life. A picture of the way of life of some identifiable group of people Ethnography is closely related to Anthropology Its process include doing fieldwork and going native The focus of ethnography is with culture, and how people interact with each other.

2. Phenomenology
Phenomenology describes the subjective reality of an event, as

perceived by the study population; it is the study of a phenomenon. Analysis /description of everyday life Interview

3. Grounded Theory
Grounded theory

is an inductive type of research, based in the

observations or data from which it was developed

Theory building- concepts, categories, themes are identified and

developed during the study.

4. Critical Theory
Critical research is typically action-oriented. Its broad aim is to integrate theory and practice such that people become aware of contradictions and disparities in their beliefs and social practices and become inspired to change them.

5. Feminist Research
Gender is the organizing principle in feminist research, and investigators seek to understand how gender and a gendered social order have shaped women's lives and their consciousness. The aim is to ameliorate the "invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to ending women's unequal social position" (Lather, 1991). The purpose of feminist research is to provide information for women, rather than merely about women.

6. Participatory Action Research

With this type of research, there is collaboration between researchers and study participants in the definition of the problem, the selection of an approach and research methods, the analysis of the data, and the use to which findings are put. The aim of PAR is to produce not only knowledge, but action and consciousness-raising as well.