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Lecture 1

This lecture covers Foreword, Scope and References IS:1893-2002(Part I) January 13, 2003
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IS:1893-2002
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IS:1893 first published in 1962. Revised in 1966, 1970, 1975, 1984, and now in 2002. Beginning 2002, this code is being split into several parts

So that revisions can take place more frequently!

Only Part 1 of the code has been published in 2002. Other parts may take a while.

 Sudhir K. Jain, IIT Kanpur

E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002

Lecture 1 / slide 2

Different Parts of IS:1893
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Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings Part 2: Liquid Retaining Tanks – Elevated and Ground Supported Part 3: Bridges and Retaining Walls Part 4: Industrial Structures Including Stack Like Structures Part 5: Dams and Embankments

 Sudhir K. Jain, IIT Kanpur

E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002

Lecture 1 / slide 3

What does IS:1893 Cover?
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Specifies Seismic Design Force Other seismic requirements for design, detailing and construction are covered in other codes

e.g., IS:4326, IS:13920, ...

For an earthquake-resistant structure, one has to follow IS:1893 together with seismic design and detailing codes.

 Sudhir K. Jain, IIT Kanpur

E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002

Lecture 1 / slide 4

For instance.Coverage of Part 1  General Provisions  Applicable to all structures   Provisions on Buildings To address the situation that other parts of the code are not yet released. this is problematic. what value of R to use for overhead water tanks? E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 5  Sudhir K. Jain. IIT Kanpur . provisions of Part 1 will be read along with the relevant clauses of IS:1893-1984 for structures other than buildings   In my opinion. Note on page 2 of the code says in the interim period.

there are many significant changes. In this presentation we will overview some of the philosophical changes discussed in Foreword of the code.Major Changes   Since the code has been revised after a very long time (~18 years). IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 6 . Jain.  Sudhir K.

5. Koyna earthquake (M6. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 7 . about 200 killed) occurred in zone I of 1966 map In 1970 zone map revised:  Zones O and VI dropped. only five zones  No change in map in 1975 and 1984 editions  Sudhir K. Jain.Zone Map    1962 and 1966 maps had seven zones (0 to VI) In 1967.

III. about 8000 deaths) in zone I! Revision of zone map in 2002 edition Zone I has been merged upwards into zone II.  In the peninsular India. 6.  Now only four zones: II.Zone Map (contd…)    Latur (1993) earthquake (mag. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 8 . IV and V.2. Jain. some parts of zone I and zone II are now in zone III.  Sudhir K.

Zone Map (contd…)  Compare carefully new and old zone maps   Chennai and Nellore (AP) in zone II earlier. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 9 . Area around Latur in zone I earlier. now in zone III  Sudhir K. now in zone III. Jain.

Zone Map (contd…)    Notice the location of Allahabad and Varanasi in the new zone map. Jain.  The Annex E of the code gives correct zones for these two cities  Sudhir K. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 10 . Varanasi should be in zone III and Allahabad in zone II. There is an error and the locations of these two cities have been interchanged in the map.

Zone Map (contd…)    Also notice another error in the new zone map Location of Calcutta has been shown incorrectly in zone IV Calcutta is in fact in zone III  Annex E of the code correctly lists Kolkata is in zone III. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 11 . Jain.  Sudhir K.

 Sudhir K.Preface    Compare clause 0. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 12 . page 2 of new code. It is clear that the code is meant for normal structures. Jain. and For special structures. site-specific seismic design criteria should be evolved by the specialists.4 of old code (1984 version) and last para.

Jain. provided certain simple precautions are taken in the construction. The following sentence has now been dropped:  There might be cases of less importance and relatively small structures for which no analysis need be made. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 13 .  There were instances of this clause being misused to avoid seismic analysis and design. page 3 of new code.1 of 1984 code and the top para.  Sudhir K.4.Preface (contd…)   Compare clause 0.

Other Effects   Read second para. For instance:  Vibration of the structure: this induces inertia force on the structure  By inertia force. Jain. page 3 Earthquakes can cause damage in a number of ways. we mean mass times acceleration     Landslide triggered by earthquake Liquefaction of the founding strata Fire caused due to earthquake Flood caused by earthquake  Sudhir K. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 14 .

 Sudhir K. Jain. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 15 . The engineer may need to also address other effects in certain cases.Other Effects (contd…)   The code generally addresses only the first aspect: the inertia force on the structure.

org/EQTips/EQTip03.pdf E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 16  Intensity tells    Read more about magnitude and intensity at:   Sudhir K. distance. Jain.Intensity versus Magnitude   It is important that you understand the difference between Intensity and Magnitude Magnitude tells   How big was the earthquake How much energy was released by earthquake How strong was the vibration at a location Depends on magnitude.nicee. IIT Kanpur . and local soil and geology http://www.

Seismic Hazard   Last para on page 3 The criterion for seismic zones remains same as before Zone Area liable to shaking intensity II III VI (and lower) VII IV V VIII IX  Sudhir K. Jain. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 17 .

Shaking Intensity  Shaking intensity is commonly measured in terms of Modified Mercalli scale or MSK scale. There is a subtle change: Modified Mercalli intensity is replaced by MSK intensity! In practical terms.  Sudhir K. it does not really matter. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 18 .7 of the old code. D of the code for MSK Intensity Scale    Compare last para of p. 3 of new code with clause 0.  See Annex. Hence. both scales are same. Jain.

even though area A has higher seismicity  Current trend world wide is to  Specify the zones in terms of ground acceleration that has a certain probability of being exceeded in a given number of years.Zone Criterion  Our zone map is based on likely intensity. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 19 . Area B experiences max intensity VIII every 300 years Both will be placed in zone IV. say    Area A experiences max intensity VIII every 50 years.  Sudhir K. For example. Jain.  It does not address the question: how often such a shaking may take place.

19 (p. 9) gives definition of MCE:   Does not tell much! More about it in next lecture  Sudhir K. Jain.Seismic Hazard   New code uses the term Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Clause 3. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 20 .

Notice that the table gives   Average values of PGA. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 21 .Ground Acceleration    Number of empirical relations available in literature to correlate shaking intensity with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) Table on next slide gives some such values. real values may be higher or lower There is considerable variation even in the average values by different empirical relations.  Sudhir K. Jain.

032 0.13 0.54 0. 1977 (revised by Murphy and O’Brien.10 0. 1954 Trifunac and Brady.72 0.26 0.13 0. 1977 V VI VII VIII IX 0. 1975 Trifunac and Brady. 1977) Newmann.046 0. 1977) Murphy and O’Brien.52 0.022 0.12 0.23 0.314 0.056 0.064 0.032 0. 1977 (revised by Murphy and O’Brien. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 22 .146 0.Table Average horizontal peak ground acceleration as a function of earthquake intensity Intensity (MM Scale) Acceleration (as a fraction of g) Empirical Relations Gutenberg and Richter.021 0.068 0.30 0.32  Sudhir K.031 0.053 0.10 0.015 0.18 0.032 0. Jain.24 0.48 0. 1956 Newmann.061 0.

.)  Note that PGA is max acceleration of ground.   Because of deformation in the structure. Jain. the motion of its base and the superstructure will be different Max acceleration experienced by mass of the structure will be different from the PGA (except if the structure is rigid)  Sudhir K. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 23 ..Ground Acceleration (contd.

IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 24 . page 3 ZPA stands for Zero Period Acceleration. Jain.  Implies max acceleration experienced by a structure having zero natural period (T=0).  Sudhir K.Ground Acceleration   First sentence of 5th para.

Zero Period Acceleration  An infinitely rigid structure   Has zero natural period (T=0) Does not deform:   No relative motion between its mass and its base Mass has same acceleration as of the ground  Hence. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 25 . Jain. ZPA is same as Peak Ground Acceleration  Sudhir K.

Jain.  Sudhir K.  It may give a false impression that the values of Z given in the code are for 50 percent risk level and 100 years service life. page 3  Mention of 50 percent risk level and 100 years of service life in my opinion is misleading. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 26 .Para 5.

 Sudhir K.Major Changes  Items a) to k) on p. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 27 . 2 of the code list some of the major changes in this edition. Jain.

 Values of seismic zone factor (Z) in the code are quite empirical  Not based on any rational analysis of expected EPGA and service life.  Sudhir K. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 28 .Item b) page 2  Effective Peak Ground Acceleration (EPGA) is a technical term:  Will discuss it later. Jain.

Major Changes (contd…)  Item e): Response Reduction Factor is supposed to account for    Ductile deformations Redundancy in the structure Overstrength in the structure  More on Response Reduction Factor later  Sudhir K. Jain. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 29 .

5 of earlier code. Jain.  This factor depended on type of soil and type of foundation.    It is well recognized that the ground shaking depends on the type of soil. Sixth para on p. E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 30  Sudhir K. This edition of code: factor β dropped. Notice subtle changes from clause 0. 3. but not on the type of foundation. design seismic force depended on factor β. IIT Kanpur .Foundation and Soil Factor  In earlier editions.

Passive Control of Seismic Response  Second para. IIT Kanpur . Jain. 4: allows use of   Base isolation system. p. and Energy absorbing devices  The code does not provide specifications for either of these.  This para emphasizes the need for extensive testing of devices (for base isolation or energy dissipation) E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 31  Sudhir K.  It is expected that the designer will use specialist literature and codes of other countries for design of structures with either of these.

Base Isolation Systems  First application of base isolation in India  Two small one-storey public buildings in Killari village  Close to the epicentre of 1993 earthquake   Project completed in February 1999 Brief discussion on this is available in:  Innovative Earthquake Recovery in India. Earthquake Engg Research Institute. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 32 . II. Jain. USA. Lessons Learned Over Time. 1999  Sudhir K. Learning from Earthquake Series. Vol.

Base Isolation Systems (contd…)  Second Application in India:  Currently. 300-bed hospital at Bhuj (Gujarat) under construction on base isolation system. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 33 . Jain.  Sudhir K.

Higher natural period means   Lower acceleration. base isolation is effective for shortperiod structures.  Therefore. Jain. p.  Sudhir K. see Fig. 2. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 34 . and hence lower inertia force.Base Isolation Systems (contd…)   Base isolation increases natural period of the structure. experienced by the structure For example. 16 of code  We will discuss this figure and the concept of spectrum later.

Jain.Base Isolation Systems (contd…)  Para 3. 4. The range of period given in this para (say less than 0. It does not mean that structures of fundamental period 0.9 sec may not be suitable candidates for base isolation. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 35 .  Sudhir K. p.7 sec) is only indicative.

References    List of four references on p.  Sudhir K.4 are obsolete: One may want to refer to more recent versions of these publications. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 36 . The references given on p. 4 of the code The code took a long time to be finalized and published. Jain.

UBC1997.Uniform Building Code  Uniform Building Code was one of the three prominent building codes in the USA    UBC popular in California which is a high seismic region. UBC was the strongest in seismic provisions amongst the three Now. all three codes are merged into International Building Code (IBC)  The trend in the USA is to revise the codes every three years:  UBC1994. IIT Kanpur . Jain. IBC2000 E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 37  Sudhir K.

IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 38 . Mumbai. …. Delhi. Jain.  Sudhir K.International Building Code  Note that the IBC is a US code even though its name implies International  Its development did not involve any real international efforts  Interestingly IBC lists prominent cities around the world with their equivalent IBC seismic zone  For instance.

NEHRP2000 E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 39  Sudhir K. e. NEHRP document is more advanced than the code itself. NEHRP1997.NEHRP  National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Programme (NEHRP) document  Prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency of USA.  It is a model code: meant to be a resource material for the codes  Hence.  Revised every three years. NEHRP1994. IIT Kanpur .g. Jain..

org/NEHRP2000/comments/  Sudhir K. Jain.bssconline..org/NEHRP2000/comments/provisio ns/ http://www.. the two documents (several hundred pages each!) provide excellent learning materials.)    NEHRP code is accompanied by another parallel document: Commentary Together.NEHRP (contd.bssconline. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 40 . Available at internet for downloading free of cost:   http://www.

Jain.  Sudhir K.At the End of Lecture 1  Please feel free to   Ask questions related to this lecture and related to the sections of the code discussed herein Let me know if some parts of this lecture were not clear. IIT Kanpur E-Course on IS:1893 / January 2002 Lecture 1 / slide 41 .