You are on page 1of 56


Foundations of Individual Behavior


Individual Behavior
• Individual behavior refers to how individual behaves at

work place , to how his behavior is influenced by his attitude, personality, perception, learning and motivation.
• This also refers to the combination of responses to

internal and external stimuli.


• Is it really necessary to know about individual behavior

when working in an organization?
• What will be the outcome if managers have thorough

knowledge in reading and dealing with different individual behaviors of employees in the workplace


Study Questions
How do perceptions influence individual behavior? 2. What should we know about personalities in the workplace? 3. How do attitudes influence individual behavior? 4. What are the dynamics of emotions, moods, and stress?


Work and Workplace
• Work can be both satisfying and dissatisfying • Workplace with satisfied employees presents a positive

environment which more likely leads the organization to success
• Workplace with dissatisfied employees is seen to have an

unpleasing environment which mostly causes the organization‟s miscarriage


Agasang .

Ambition • Desire to achieve or to accomplish something • Shows through personality as a sense of competitiveness and a desire to be the best at something Agasang .

according to Ram Charan • Separates those people “who perform” from those “who don‟t” • Propels individual leaders and their companies to strive to reach their potential • Leaders need a healthy dose of it to push themselves and others Agasang .Ambition.

Personal Differentiators Ambition Drive Tenacity Confidence Openness To achieve To solve To persevere To act To Experience Realism Learning Integrity To accept To grow To fulfill Agasang .


Perception Agasang .

values. organize and interpret information from the environment • Yourself • Other people • Daily life experiences • People have different perception over things and situations • Culture.Perception • The process through which people receive. age. • People behave according to these perceptions Agasang . gender.

Perception • Example Fisherman VS Surfer Agasang .

in return for the employee's work and loyalty. that an employee believes he/she is 'owed' by his/her employer. in a basic sense.Psychological Contracts • Psychological contracts are sets of „promises‟ or „expectations‟ that are exchanged between the parties in an employment relationship. Agasang . rewards. • The Psychological Contract represents. rights. etc.. the obligations.

Agasang .

Contributions Inducements Contributions Inducements Agasang A B .

the employee benefits less in the relationship because his contribution is not given equivalent inducements Example: An employee on overtime is paid with the compensation amount for a regular shift Agasang .• Diagram A shows an unbalanced scale with more load on the “contribution” side. • In this situation.

the employer benefits less in the relationship because the inducements are not given equivalent work contributions.• Diagram B shows an unbalanced scale with more load on the “inducements” side. Agasang . Example: An employer gave his employees their salary equivalent for a week. At the end of the week. the employees turned out to produce work equivalent for 4 days. • In this situation.

• This situation promotes positive aura. the Contributions Inducements employee and the employer benefit fairly in the relationship. harmony. Agasang . coordination and cooperation in the workplace.Ideal Situation • In this situation.

Perception and Attribution • Attribution • the process of developing explanations for events influenced by one‟s own perception Agasang .

an observer perceive another person‟s/group‟s performance problems as due more to internal failures of the person/group than external factors relating to the environment. without sufficiently taking into account the situation that the student was in. Agasang . Example: • When a student fails to turn in a homework assignment. a teacher is too ready to assume that the student was too lazy to finish the homework.Fundamental Attribution Errors • In this situation.

Self-serving Bias Agasang .

• It seems to show that you don‟t have the capability of committing mistakes Agasang .Self-serving Bias • Explain personal success by internal causes and personal failures by external causes. the situation and reasons are always favorable to the one‟s self. • In this attribution.

you just spent those times allotted for completing that paper playing dota.• Example: • You fail to meet the deadline for your paper and complain that you were not given enough time to finish it. Agasang . But the truth is.

Agasang .• Example: • Bragging out to all your friends that you pass the exam even without reviewing because you are born and innately intelligent.

• Common stereotypes • • • • Gender Racial and ethnic Ability Age Agasang . • These classifications can be positive or negative.Perceptual Tendencies and Distortions • Stereotypes • are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group.

Agasang . so he is promoted to the position of vice president of sales. he does not know the first thing about being a company executive.Halo Effect • It occurs when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation. • Example: • A sales professional is proficient at bringing in new accounts and generating revenue. Unfortunately.

or needs. values. Agasang .Selective Perception • Refers to the tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation or person that reinforce one‟s existing beliefs. • Tendency to define problems from one‟s own point of view.

the HR officer accepted the applicant. • Example: • An HR officer interviews an applicant. assuming that the applicant is as equally effective as he is. Agasang . Upon the interview. By knowing this. the interviewer knew that they share the same interests in books.Projection • It is the assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.

Impression Management .

Impression Management • Impression management is the act of slightly bending the truth so as to ensure that others are not harmed or insulted by your statements as well as to make yourself appear in the best possible light. • The systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us Agasang .

Impression Management Techniques • Dressing Formally and Maintaining Personal Appearance • Avoiding Negative Issues • Slightly Exaggerating Positive Points • Downplaying Negative Factors • Controlling Body Language .


Agasang .

• Refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking. Agasang . feeling and behaving.Personality • Refers to the profile of the characteristics making a person unique from others. attitudinal. and behavioral response patterns of an individual. • It is the particular combination of emotional.

• Emotional Stability • Degree to which someone is relaxed.“BIG FIVE” Personality Dimensions • Extraversion • Degree to which someone is outgoing. cooperative. open to new ideas. and unworried • Openness to experience • Degree to which someone is curious. sociable. and careful. secure. and imaginative. and trusting. and assertive. • Agreeableness • Degree to which someone is good-natured. • Conscientiousness • Degree to which someone is responsible. Agasang .

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • It is a sophisticated questionnaire that probes into how people act or feel in various situations. Mangilit .

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extravert vs Introvert Sensing vs Intuitive Thinking vs Feeling (Decision Making) Judging vs Perceiving (Work Style) (Social (Gathering Interaction) Data) Mangilit .

by personality. tend to relate with the environment • Emotional Adjustment Trait • Describing how people are inclined toward handling stress and uncomfortable situations Mangilit .• Personal Conception Trait • Describing how people.

Additional Personality Traits Openness Locus of control Emotional Stability Authoritarianism Conscientiousness Type A Orientation Agreeableness Machiavellianism Extroversion Individual Personality Variations Self-monitoring Mangilit .

• Locus of Control • Is the extent to which one believes that what happens is within one‟s control • Internals are more self-confident and accept responsibility for their own actions • Externals are more prone to blame others and outside forces for what happens to them • Authoritarianism • Is the degree to which a person tends to defer to authority and accepts status differences Mangilit .

• Machiavellianism • Describes the extent to which someone is emotionally detached and manipulative • “High-Mach” – personality is viewed as exploitive and unconcerned to others • “Low-Mach” – personality is differential in allowing others to exert power over him or her • Self-monitoring • Is the degree to which someone is able to adjust behavior in response to external factors Mangilit .

and perfectionism Patterns of Behavior in Type A Personality • Always moving. walking. impatience. hurrying others. and eating rapidly • Acting impatient. put off by waiting • Doing. several things at once • Feeling guilty when relaxing • Hurrying or interrupting the speech of others • Trying to schedule more in less time • Using nervous gestures such as tapping fingers or clenching fist Mangilit . or trying to do.• Type A Personality • Is a person oriented toward extreme achievement.


reflects a belief or an opinion • Affective or Emotional component.reflects a specific feeling • Behavioral component.Attitude • It is a predisposition to act in a certain way toward people and things in our environment Three components of an Attitude • Cognitive components.reflects an intention to behave in a manner consistent with the beliefs and feeling Mangilit .

• Cognitive dissonance • Describes the discomfort felt when one‟s attitude and behavior are consistent • Job Satisfaction • Is the degree to which an individual feels positive or negative about various aspects of work Mangilit .

actual and perceived. challenge? • Quality of supervision • Is task help and social support available? • Co-workers • How much harmony. growth? • Pay • is compensation.Satisfaction Facets • Work itself • Does the job offer responsibility. fair and substantial? • Work Conditions • Do conditions offer comfort. support? • Security • Is the job and employment secure? Mangilit . friendliness exists? • Opportunities • Are there avenues for promotion. safety. respect . interest. learning.

workers who are more satisfied with their jobs are absent less often than those who are dissatisfied • Turnover.satisfied workers are more likely to stay and dissatisfied workers are more likely to quit their job • Employee engagement • Is willingness to help others do extra. and feeling positive about the organization Mangilit .• Withdrawal Behavior • Occur as temporary absenteeism and actual job turnover • Absenteeism.

• Job Involvement • The extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job • Organizational Citizenship • Is a willingness to “go beyond the call of duty” or “go the extra mile” in one‟s work Mangilit .


and Stress • Emotions • Are strong feelings directed toward someone or something • Emotional Intelligence • Is an important human skill for managers and an essential leadership capability • Ability to understand emotions and manage relationships Mangilit .Emotions. Moods.

Mood • Moods • Are more generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind that may persist for some time • Mood Contagion • The spill over effects of one‟s mood onto others Mangilit .

Stress • Stress • A state of tension caused by extraordinary demands. constraints or opportunities • Stressors • Things that cause stress Mangilit .

and encourage diligence in one‟s work • Destructive Stress • Also called “distress” • Is dysfunctional and impairs the performance of an individual Mangilit . stimulate creativity.Outcomes of Stress • Constructive Stress • Also called “eustress” • Acts in a positive way to increase effort.

• Job Burnout • Physical and mental exhaustion that can be personally incapacitating • Workplace rage • Aggressive behavior toward co-workers and the work setting in general Mangilit .

Stress Management • Is the systematic way of dealing with stress in order to maintain a good performance in work and promote healthy living • Personal Wellness • The pursuit of one‟s full potential through a personal health promotion program Mangilit .