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A CATHOLIC CHURCH HISTORY

BRIEF AND CONSCISE

FIRST CENTURY
• THE BIRTH OF THE CHURCH
– Pentecost – St. Paul – Council of Jerusalem – Evangelization – Persecution

SECOND CENTURY
• THE CHURCH FATHERS
– Writings of the Christian writers
• St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch • Iranaeus
– “AGAINST THE HERESIES” – Fought against Gnosticism

– Bishops
• Head of diocese (local church) • Assisted by priests and deacons

THIRD CENTURY • MARTYRS. MONASTICISM – Emperor Decius order for all Christians to make public worship to the gods – Those who disobey where put to death (martyred) – Those who didn’t want to die. abandoned the faith (apostatized) – Monastic life started in Egypt . APOSTATIZED CATHOLICS.

the Pope. Peter’s basilica) Backing the production of the Bible Restored the land that were taken away during persecutions • Gave the Bishop of Rome. the Lateran Palace .FOURTH CENTURY • EMPEROR CONSTANTINE – Edict of Milan • • • • Religious freedom Built basilicas (St.

FOURTH CENTURY • Arianism – Jesus. though son of God. was created • Council of Nicea – Nicene Creed • Barbarians – Led to the collapse of the empire .

The Barbarians • • • • • • • Visigoths Huns Vandals Ostrogoths Lombards Burgundians Franks • • • • • Germany Gaul (modern France) Italy Roman Africa Spain 410 – fall of Rome .

FIFTH CENTURY • Pelagius – Grace was not necessary for salvation – Council of Orange • Nestorianism – Mary was not the mother of God – Council of Ephesus (THEOTOKOS) • St. Augustine • Increase in Missionary Activity .

gathered up from the ruins all that was good in the Roman heritage: • Language • Customs • Laws – Vatican became the refuge – Europe was won to the Church of Christ . the Vatican – Protected the oppressed. evangelized the victors.Light Spreads out from Rome • Pope Leo I – Ordered the Barbarians in the name of God to respect the Holy City.

SIXTH CENTURY • Monasticism – St. Benedict – Ora et labora • Missionary activities continue • Pagan practices increase .

Africa • Pope Gregory the Great – – – – – Roman civil government Monk Papal envoy Pope Rebuilt the City of Rome • The beginning of Islam – Mohammed born in Mecca – Jerusalem fell to the Muslims – ¾ of the known Christian world .SEVENTH CENTURY • Monasticism spreads – Italy. Spain. France.

King Charles Martel stopped them • St. Boniface • Patrician of Rome – Pepin the Short succeeded his father Charles Martel – Pope Stephen II called upon France for help against the Barbarians to defend Central and Southern Italy – In gratitude: Pepin – Patrician of Rome – In return: Central Italy to the papacy .EIGHT CENTURY • Islam is stopped – When they set their feet on France.

– Called for the 2nd Council of Nicea – restored the ancient practice of veneration of saints. – All sacred images were destroyed – But was stopped when Empress Irene took over. .EIGHT CENTURY • Iconoclast Controversy – Eastern Emperor Leo III prohibited the veneration of sacred images because it contradicted the Bible.

NINTH CENTURY • Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor – Alliance between France and the papacy – Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor” – The beginning of the Alliance between Church and State for centuries .

.TENTH CENTURY • Birth of Feudalism • Abuses plagued the Church – Simony: selling and buying of religious offices – Nepostism: when a king or lord gave a vacant religious office to one of their relatives – Lay Investiture: when a king or Lord would make someone Bishop without the approval of Rome.

ELEVENTH CENTURY • The Great Schism – Eastern and Western Church officially split in 1054 – Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX excommunicating each other .

ELEVENTH CENTURY EASTERN CHURCH • Greek • Leavened bread for the Eucharist • Allows priests to marry WESTERN CHURCH • Latin • Unleavened bread • Enforced celibacy .

Urban II responded by calling the “Knights of Christendom”. . the Eastern Emperor called for the Pope for help.ELEVENTH CENTURY • POPES DEAL WITH ABUSES – Pope Leo IX and Gregory VII • Called various gatherings to combat the abuses of the Church • Reduced emperor’s power over papacy and put it back to the hands of Bishops • Pope Gregory VII wrote “DICTATES” which gave the Bishop of Rome supreme authority over the entire Church • THE BEGINNING OF CRUSADES – When Jerusalem fell to the Turks.

Bishop of Paris • The Lateran Councils – The first ecumenical councils to take place in the West – Lateran I: abuses of lay investiture and simony – Lateran II and III: 2/3 majority of votes of Cardinals is needed to elect a Pope • Birth of the Cathedral . a professor and a Theologian – Peter Lombard.TWELFTH CENTURY • Theology changes – Peter Abelard.

Paris – Medicine. Theology and Liberal Arts .THIRTEENTH CENTURY • THE MENDICANT ORDERS – Renounced both possessions and property – Francis of Assisi (OFM) – Order of Friar Minors – Dominic de Guzman (OP) – Order of Preachers • POPE INNOCENT III – 4TH Lateran Council • Eucharist • Education of Priests • THE UNIVERSITY – Bologna. Oxford. Law.

FOURTEENTH CENTURY • Papacy moves to France – On-going fighting and violence between rival Italian families – 1309. – Recaptured the artistic style of the ancient Romans and Greeks. sculptures and paintings • The Plague – Black Death spread through Europe – 1/3 of population died . France util 1376 • The Renaissance – Began to take shape in Italy. – Literature. Pope Clement V left Rome for Avignon.

they elected another Pope. when they went back to France. Clement VII.FOURTEENTH CENTURY • St. who took up residency in Avignon . Catherine of Siena – Helped Pope Gregory IX bring back papacy to Rome • Western Schism – Pope Gregory IX died – Urban VI was elected Pope – French cardinals questioned its legality.

Margaret and St.FIFTEENTH CENTURY • Western Schism – Council of Pisa attempted to end the schism – Two Popes were asked to attend the council. Joan of Arc – St. found guilty of being a heretic – 1456 the Church declared her innocent of all charges . Michael. Catherine. St. but both refused – Alexander V was elected – Council of Constance requested the resignation of all 3 popes and elected Martin V • St. Benedict XIII and Gregory XII. small French army against the English at Orleans – She was captured by the English and French King Charles put her to trial.

ordained an Agustinian priest – Experienced certain doubts and turmoil = Sola Scriptura and Sola Fide – 95 theses that questioned and challenged the Catholic Church teachings = revolt – Roman Catholicism and Protestantism – 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated him • St.SIXTEENTH CENTURY • Martin Luther – 1507. Ignatius of Loyola – Studied at the University of Paris – “Company of Jesus” .

King Henry VII made himself head of the Church of England – Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn – Excommunicated.SIXTEENTH CENTURY • Council of Trent – Universal Catechism – Seminary system • Council of England – Act of Supremacy. took over the Church in England .

Germany – Purpose: try to re-establish Catholic dominance in Germany – Treaty of Westphalia – gave Catholics and Protestants equality before the laws in Germany . Canada. Africa. America. Japan.SEVENTEENTH CENTURY • Missionary Activities – The Jesuits preached in Columbia. Georgia and Texas • Thirty Years War – Emperor Ferdinand of Austria. Florida.

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY • Period of Enlightenment – A movement founded on science and reason – Jansenism • Bishop Cornelius Jansen. Agustinus – God gave grace only to those who wished to be saved – Opposed to frequent communion. sanits and Mary – Gallicanism • Fueled by kings and monarchs to limit the power of the papacy and put that power in the hands of the government . confession.

put the clergy under the control of the state. King Louis XVI = bloody revolution – The state sought to control the affairs of the Church by electing priests and bishops – The French government implemented the Civil Constitution of the clergy .EIGHTEENTH CENTURY • French revolution – French officials pushed for government reform which included taking power away from the reigning monarch. • Catholicism in America – Bishop John Caroll • Maryland’s first Bishop • Diocese of Baltimore – Junipero Serra • Franciscan Missionary – nine mission coasts of California .

founded the Sisters of Charity • John Neumann – Bishop of Philadelphia – Founded many parishes and parochial schools . became Catholic upon the death of her husband.NINETEENTH CENTURY • Catholic American Church – Three councils in Baltimore – Baltimore catechism – Parochial school systems • Elizabeth Seton – A mother of five.

NINETEENTH CENTURY • Pius IX and Vatican I – The Italian government stripped the Pope of its property in an attempt to unify Italy. – Papal estates were reduced to Vatican City – Prisoner of the Vatican – Called for 1st Vatican Council • Immaculate Conception • “The Syllabus of Errors” to attack liberalism • Papal Infallibility • Pope Leo XIII – Rerum Novarum to counter Industrial Revolution .

TWENTIETH CENTURY • Pope Pius X – Released a decree promoting and encouraging all Catholics to receive Holy Communion daily – “Eucharistic Pope” • Pius XII – Guided the Church through World War II – Assisted those in need including Jews from Nazi aggression – Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary .

16 documents to guide. renew and modernize the Church • John Paul II – The 1st non-Italian Pope elected in 1978.TWENTIETH CENTURY • Vatican II – John XXIII opened 21st Ecumenical Council – Vatican II – 3 years . after 456 years – Karol Wojtyla from Cracow Poland – Published the Catechism of the Catholic Church – New Code of Canon Law . unit.