Head and Neck | Larynx | Human Tooth

The Head and Neck

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Triangles of the Neck: Posterior
Boundaries
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Anterior = Sternocleidomastoid muscle Posterior = Trapezius muscle Inferior = Clavicle Nerves: Phrenic, Accessory, Cervical Plexus,Brachial Plexus Artery: Subclavian Vein: External Jugular
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Contents

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Triangles of the Neck: Anterior

Boundaries
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Superior = Inferior margin of Mandible Anterior = Midline of Neck Posterior = Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles: Suprahyoid, Infrahyoid Artery: Carotid Vein: Internal Jugular, External Jugular Nerve: Accessory Glands: Submandibular
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Contents
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Triangles of the Neck

pg 739

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Upper Respiratory Tract

Pg 583
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Nose
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Only external part of Respiratory tract Functions
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Airway of respiratory tract Moisten and Warm air Filter air Resonating chamber for speech Houses olfactory receptors

External Nares = Nostrils: openings through which air enters nasal cavity Internal Nares = Choanae: openings between nasal cavity and nasopharynx
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Nasal Cavity
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Part of respiratory passage Boundaries
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Roof = ethmoid bone (cribiform plate) Floor = maxilla (palatine process) Pg 584 palatine (horizontal plate) Lateral walls = nasal bones, superior,+ middle nasal conchae (ethmoid bone), inferior nasal conchae, maxilla, palatine bone Nasal Septum = divides cavity into 2

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Continuous w/nasopharynx via internal nares Hard Palate = palatine, maxillary bones (= floor) Soft Palate = muscular (very posterior)
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Nasal Conchae

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Project medially from each lateral wall of nasal cavity Superior, Middle (ethmoid) Inferior nasal conchae Covered with Mucosa Functions
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Create turbulance Reclaim heat from exhaled air

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Pg 584

Nasal Cavity

(continued)

Respiratory Mucosa–lines cavity walls, septum
Ciliated psuedostratified columnar epithelium w/lamina propria

Mucous cells + serous cells

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Moistens + warms inhaled air Highly innervated, vascularized

Olfactory Mucosa – on roof of nasal cavity, contains the olfactory (smell) receptors

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Nasal Cavity (continued)

Vestibule –space just inside external nares

Skin lining contains:

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Sebaceous glands -greasy secretion collect dirt, lubricate, kill bacteria Sweat glands -acidic, slows growth of bacteria Hair follicles –trap smaller particles of dirt and dust

Vibrissae – nose hairs filtering larger particles from air

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Paranasal Sinuses
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Air-filled sacs surrounding nasal cavity; extension of nasal cavity; same lining Located in Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Maxilla bones Function: Warm + Filter air, Lightens skull

Pg 16

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Pharynx = “Throat”

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Connects nasal cavity & mouth to esophagus & larynx Runs from skull to C6 Carries food and air Lined with skeletal muscle Divided into 3 regions
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Pg 617

Nasopharynx Oropharynx Layrngopharynx

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Tonsils
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Swellings of mucosal lining of pharynx Simple lymph organs

MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Form ring around opening of pharynx 4 groups
Palatine (pair)  Lingual  Pharyngeal  Tubal (pair) www.smso.net

Pg 570

Nasopharynx: Only carries air
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Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium Location
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Posterior to Nasal Cavity Inferior to Sphenoid bone Superior to Soft Palate

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Closed off during swallowing by soft palate & uvula Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) Tubal tonsils
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Oropharynx: Carries Food & Air

Thick, protruding stratified squamosal epithelium due to great friction Location
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Posterior to Oral Cavity Runs from Soft Palate to Epiglottis

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Palatine tonsils Lingual tonsils
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Laryngopharynx: Carries Food & Air
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Stratified squamosal epithelium Location

Posterior to Larynx

Continuous with esophagus (digestive system) Continuous with larynx (respiratory system)

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Regions of the Pharynx

Nasopharynx Oropharyn x Laryngophary nx

Pg 584
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Larynx = “voicebox”

Location: C4-6

Low in neck for speech Superiorly = hyoid bone Inferiorly = trachea

Attachments
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Innervation = vagus Functions
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Pg 570

Voice production Airway Routes food/air
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Vocal Cords
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Located in larynx Vocal ligaments run from aretynoid and thyroid cartilages Elastic fibers form mucosal fold = true vocal cords “False” vocal cords = lie superior to true pair, no role in voice production Exhaled air passes over them causing vibration
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Force of air = volume Length & tension of folds = pitch

Pg 588

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Larynx

9 Cartilages connected by ligaments & membranes
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1 1 1 2 2 2

Epiglottis Thyroid Cricoid Arytenoid Corniculate Cuneiform

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Superior part = stratified squamosal epithelium Below vocal cords= ciliated pseudostratified columnar

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Laryngeal Cartilages

Epiglottis
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Elastic cartilage; Mucosa covering Projects upward from anterior wall of laryngeal inlet to level of base of tongue Large, shield shaped, made of 2 plates Laryngeal prominence Shaped like signet ring www.smso.net Between thyroid cartilage and trachea

Thyroid Cartilage
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Cricoid Cartilage
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Laryngeal Cartilages

Pg 587
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Thyroid Gland

Location:
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Along trachea, just inferior to larynx “Butterfly” shape Thyroid hormone (TH): increases basal metabolic rate Calcitonin: depresses excessive levels of Ca2+ in blood Superior thyroid arteries (branches of ext. carotids) Inferior thryoid arteries (branches of subclavians)
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Endocrine Gland
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Blood Supply:
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Hyoid Bone
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Only bone not directly articulated with other bones Attaches via ligaments to temporal bone, larynx Components
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Body Pair of Greater Horns Pair of Lesser Horns

Functions
Moveable base for tongue  Attachment for sternohyoid, thyrohyoid  Superior www.smso.net attachment for larynx

Pg 163

Mouth = Oral Cavity
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Opening of alimentary canal Lined with mucosa Thick, stratified epithelium (slightly keratinized in some parts) Boundaries
Anterior = lips  Lateral = cheeks  Posterior = oropharynx  Superior = palate  Inferior = tongue www.smso.net

Pg 617

Lips (labia) + Cheeks:
chewing
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Mouth

Keep food in mouth during

Lips = Orbicularis oris Pg 266Muscles of Mastication (checkout Origin/Insertions!) 7
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Cheeks: Temporalis & Masseter (elevate mandible) Buccinator (chewing) Digastric (lower mandible against resistance) Pterygoids (lateral movements)

Palate
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Hard palate (anterior): Tongue pushes food against it during chewing, made of bone Soft palate (posterior): Closes nasopharynx during swallowing; made of muscle
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Tongue

bitte r

Functions
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sou r Grips and moves food between teeth during chewing
Mixes food with saliva = BOLUS Moves bolus down pharynx Speech production Houses taste buds (= gustation)

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Creates floor of mouth sweet Attachments: hyoid, mandible, styloid process, soft palate Made of Skeletal muscle w/CT septum
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salt y

Intrinsic muscles Extrinsic muscles Motor = Hypoglossal (CN XII) Sensory = Mandibular (CN V3), Facial (CN VII), Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
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Innervation
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Pg 618

Swallowing
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Voluntarily initiated (pharynx) Peristalsis = propulsion
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Pg 611

Involuntary Alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in organ walls (e.g. esophagus) Squeezes food from one organ to next Some mixing

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Salivary Glands
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Exocrine, tubuloalveolar glands Produce Saliva

H2O, Ions, Mucus, Enzymes In mucosa of tongue, lips, palate, cheeks Keep areas wet External to mouth Provide saliva when necessary or anticipated 2 Submandibular, 2 Sublingual, 2 Parotid glands www.smso.net

Internal salivary glands are small
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External salivary glands are large, have ducts
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Salivary Glands
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Pg 618

Moisten mouth, wet food Dissolve food to taste Bind food together Begin to break down starch Neutralize mouth acid Kill harmful microorganisms Promote beneficial bacteria www.smso.net

Tiny Tabitha’s Teeth
The story of teeth from eruption to edentate

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Tiny Tabitha: Age 4 days
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Number of Erupted Teeth = 0 Ultimate Goal = 32 Teeth
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Incisors (8): rip, cut Canines (4): tear and pierce Premolars (8): grinding Molars (12): grinding

Estimated Time of Completion = 15-25 years Currently jaws covered by gingiva (gum): is oral mucosa = lots of drooling
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Tabitha’s First Tooth

Deciduous (Milk) = 20
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8 4 4 4

Incisors = 6-10 months Canines = 16-20 months 1st Molars = 12-16 months 2nd Molars = 20-24 months

Dental Formula: describes number, kind & position of teeth in ½ of the mouth
2:1:0:2 2:1:0:2
premolar s molars

canines Incisors

X 2 = 20

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Tabitha’s Teeth

Function: Ingestion and mechanical breakdown of food Alveoli: sockets in mandible and maxilla teeth sit in Periodontal Ligament: collagen fibers anchor tooth in bony socket

Gomphosis

Cementum: calcified connective tissue attaching tooth to periodontal ligament www.smso.net

Pg 620

Gross Anatomy of a Tooth
Pg 620

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Crown = area above gingiva Neck = (gumline) where crown and root meet Root = area below neck in alveolus
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Tabitha’s Teeth Begin to Tumble

Around 7 years of age the periodontal ligaments & roots of deciduous teeth are eroded = teeth fall out Permanent teeth begin to erupt between 7-13 years 3rd Molars (Wisdom Teeth) may not erupt until 17-25 years End Result: Adult Dental Formula premolar
2:1:2:3
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s X 2 = 32

2:1:2:3

Tabitha’s Tooth Troubles
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College --> too much junkfood = CAVITIES (caries) Bacteria erodes through the outer enamel covering of tooth
   

Avascular, Acellular Mostly calcium salts Not renewed or replaced Hardest substance in body

In severe cases it erodes the deeper dentin of tooth
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Made of minerals & collagen Is maintained during life Harder than bone Bulk of tooth

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Pg 620

Tabitha’s Tooth Trauma!

Most severe cases erosion penetrates pulp cavity
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Center of tooth Pulp = loose CT w/ vessels & nerves Supplies nutrients to hard tissues

 

Root canal: part of pulp cavity in root Apical Foramen: opening of pulp cavity into root canal Artery: Sup/Inf Alveolar aa, branches of Ext Carotid a Innervation:
 

Maxilla = Superior Alveolar Nerves Mandible = Inferior Alveolar Nerves
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Pg 620

Tabitha’s Teeth: the later years

Tabitha graduates college, begins to take better care of her teeth (i.e. consistent brushing, flossing & dental visits), and leads a normal happy tooth-filled life UNTIL……… GINGIVITIS…..(inflammation of the gingiva caused by plaque accumulation) leads to…..

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Toodaloo Tabitha’s Teeth

PERIODONTITIS

Infection of periodontal ligament leading to its destruction and that of the bone around teeth Leading to……..

TOOTHLESSNESS!!!

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