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# Concepts and Properties

## ABRAHAM DE MOIVRE first developed the

mathematical equation for the normal curve in eighteenth century.

## KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS- developed the concept of

the curve in the nineteenth century from a study of errors on repeated measurements of the same quantity

## NORMAL DISTRIBUTION (GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION)

NORMAL CURVE
A normal curve is a bell shaped

curve that extends indefinitely on both sides. The left side of the curve is equal to the right side. It is asymptotic to the base line. The areas under the normal curve represents the population of a particular distribution. The total area under the normal curve is 1.0 or 100% In a normal curve, the mean, the median and the mode coincide at one point at the center of the curve.

## PARAMETERS USED TO DESCRIBE THE NORMAL CURVE:

Mean

Standard Deviation

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 1. Find the are from z=0 to z=1.25

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 2. Find the are from z=0 to z= -1.25

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 3. Find the are from z=1.25 to z=2.0

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 4. Find the are from z=1.5 to z=-2.25

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 5. Find the area from and to the right of z= 2.0

## AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 6. Find the area from and to the left of z= 2.0

## STANDARD SCORE (Z-SCORE)

Is the distance of the score from the mean in terms of

the standard deviation. It tells how many standard deviations the observed value(x) lies above or below the mean of the distribution. To change an observed value into standard score, use the equation:

## To change an observed value into standard score, use the equation:

Z= xs
Where: x= raw score/ observed value above the mean = mean s= standard deviation

Example 1. in a given distribution, the mean is 65 and the standard deviation is 6. find he corresponding standard score of: a. 68 b. 59 c. 77 d. 47

Example 2. In the final examination in mathematics, the mean grade was 82 and the standard deviation was 8. In English, the mean grade was 86 and the standard deviation was 10. Joseph scored 88 in mathematics and 92 in English. In which subject was his standing higher?

English

mathematics

## APPLICATIONS OF THE NORMAL CURVE

Example 1. If the scores are normally distributed with a mean of 30 and a standard deviation of 5, what percent of the scores is: a. Equal or greater than 30? b. Equal or greater than 37? c. From 28 to 34?

Example 2. Two hundred eighty (280) incoming freshmen at a certain college were given IQ test. Assuming that their IQs are normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, find how many freshmen have an IQ of: a. 80 and lower b. 105 and higher c. Between 90 105

Example 3. a normally distributed data has a mean of 200 and a standard deviation of 20 a. What is the lowest value that belongs to the upper 10% the distribution? b. What are the two extreme scores, outside of which only 5% of the distribution are expected to fall?

Example 4. the average grade of 2nd year students majoring in business management is normally distributed with the mean of 84 and a standard deviation of 5. a. In what range does the middle 90% of all the 2nd year students majoring in Business Management lie? b. Students are given warnings when their average grade falls to and below 80. if so, what proportion of the 2nd year business management majors is given warnings?