You are on page 1of 49

Essay Titles + Markschemes

Cells are easy to distinguish by their shape. How are the shapes of cells related to their functions? (25 marks)

Movement in cells (25 marks) .


Transfer through ecosystems (25 marks) .


tissues and organs (25marks) .The part played by enzymes in the functioning of different cells.


The ways in which organisms use ATP (25 marks) .

The role of ATP could have been described in: •Muscle contraction •Active transport •Maintaining resting potential •Re-synthesis of acetylcholine and rhodopsin •Glycolysis of respiration •Light independent reactions of photosynthesis •Synthesis (anabolism) •Kidney function •Translocation •Nitrogen fixation At least 50% of candidates went into great detail about ATP production and consequently lost 1 relevance mark. .

The structure of DNA and the effects of point mutation 1. Condensation reactions between mononucleotides to form polynucleotides 6. Introduction could include reference to DNA as a polynucleotide and the nature of the genetic code as a sequence of bases 2. Bases in DNA. cytosine and thymine as pyrimidines 5. Structure of a mononucleotide 3. deoxyribose and phosphate 4. reference to HbS . Point mutations illustrated by base deletions. insertions. Complementary base pairing and the double helix 7. Reference to transcription and translation of genetic code 8. and substitutions 9. Adenine and guanine as purines. Effects of point mutation on amino acid sequences.

Point mutations – 11. Sexual reproduction involves fusion of gametes leading to genetic variation – 3.Translocation – 13.Polysomy – 14. Significance of mutations – 9. Introduction could include reference to the importance of genetic variation – 2. Crossing over – 7. Autosomal linkage and recombinants in relation to events of meiosis – 8. Gamete formation involves reduction division (meiosis) – 4. chemical mutagens and radiation – 10. Causes of mutations.Chromosome mutations – 12.Polyploidy – . Behaviour of chromosomes during first and second divisions of meiosis – 5. Chiasmata formation – 6. 1.The causes of genetic variation.

LH. Role of the liver 8. gibberellins. glucagon and adrenaline in the control of blood glucose levels 7. oxytocin. Principles of hormonal action 5. Introduction could include reference to the concept of homeostasis and its importance. progesterone. oestrogen. ABA and ethene 11. The nature of mammalian hormones 4. factors which lead to variation in blood glucose levels 6. reference to negative feedback mechanisms 3. Plant growth substances. Hormones in reproduction. Roles of insulin. cytokinins. FSH. prolactin 10. Regulation of blood glucose. auxins. 2. Emphasis should be on the principle of coordination . ADH and the regulation of body water 9.Chemical coordination in animals and plants 1.

Haemoglobin and myoglobin – 9. ADH. enzymes in DNA replication – 5.The roles of proteins in living organisms. 4. Rhodopsin and iodopsin – 11. Introduction could include outline of protein structure and diverse roles 2. other protein /peptide hormones – 7. collagen – 6. Hormones. Structural proteins. illustrated by insulin and glucagon. Membrane transport proteins – 8.g. illustrated with examples such as digestive enzymes. Enzymes. Antibodies – 10. Specific roles of proteins: 3. e. 1. Rubisco – .

Chymosin from genetically modified yeast and its use – 12. Reverse transcriptase – 9. Roles of enzymes in gene technology – 8. The concept of active site – 3.The structure of enzymes and their uses in commercial processes. DNA polymerase in PCR – . Immobilised enzymes in commercial procedures – 6. Use of pectinases in production of fruit juices – 5. The structure of enzymes as globular proteins – 2. DNA ligase – 11. Endonucleases – 10. Enzyme specificity – 4. 1. Reference to lactase – 7.

Phosphate ions – 11. mineral ions – 3.[some candidates might refer to the transport of mineral ions to sinks in the phloem] . Movement of water (plus dissolved mineral ions) through the plant – 5.The uptake. Roles of diffusion and active transport in the uptake of . Role of the endodermis – 7. Functioning of the transpiration stream – 8.Magnesium ions – 12. Apoplast. Structure of vessels and their contribution to the movement of water – 9. 1. Introduction could include reference to the structure of xylem tissue in plants 2. Structure of the root – 4. Nitrate ions – 10. transport and roles of mineral ions in flowering plants. symplast and vascular pathways – 6.

Structure and roles of stomata – 7. Phloem – 6.Compensation point – . Introduction could include relationship between structure and function of a leaf – 2. 1. palisade mesophyll.Effect of air pollution – 12. Effect of wavelength on photosynthesis – 9. External and internal structure of a mesophyte leaf – 3.Concept of limiting factors – 13. spongy mesophyll – 4.Effect of temperature – 11. Effect of light intensity on photosynthesis – 8. Xylem – 5. Upper and lower epidermis. Effect of carbon dioxide concentration – 10.The structure of a typical mesophyte leaf and the effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis.

4.Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and the regulation of blood glucose. leading to an increase in blood sugar level – Roles of insulin. Introduction could include reference to the nature of carbohydrates. 11. 8. 1. monosaccharides. 10. 5. salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase – Digestion of maltose – Digestion of sucrose – Digestion of lactose – Absorption of monosaccharides – Relationship between structure and function of ileum – Digestion of cellulose in ruminants. saprobiotic digestion Absorption of glucose. 3. 2. 7. disaccharides and polysaccharides – Digestion of starch. glucagon and adrenaline in control of blood glucose levels – Roles of the liver in glucose-glycogen metabolism – . 9. 6.

Guard cell – 4. Sieve tube element – 8. Spongy mesophyll cell – 5.The structures and functions of different types of plant cells. Palisade cell with reference to structure of chloroplasts and photosynthesis – 3. Xylem vessel – 6. 1.Root hair – Expect discussion of relationship between structure and function . Introduction could include reference to generalised structure of a plant cell Expect descriptions of structure and functions of: 2. Fibre – 7. Epidermal cell – 10. Companion cell – 9.

Polymers have different structures. Describe how the structures of different polymers are related to their functions . They also have different functions.

Polymers as molecules associated with storage • Biological molecules. carbohydrates and proteins • The release of energy from carbohydrate • The control of blood glucose Polymers as informational molecules • Enzymes • DNA as genetic material. carbohydrates and proteins . cell walls • Biological molecules. structure of nucleic acids • Principles of immunology • The transport of respiratory gases Polymers as structural molecules • Cell ultrastructure.

Explain how surface area is linked to this transfer. .Heat and many different substances are transferred within the human body and between the body and the environment.

Absorption of the products of digestion Transfer of heat The relationship between .Principles Diffusion and Fick’s law Size and surface area to volume ratio Substances Blood and blood vessels The exchange of respiratory gases in the lung The structure and functions of the placenta.

Carbon dioxide in organisms and ecosystems. .

• • • • • • • • Biochemistry The biochemistry of photosynthesis The biochemistry of respiration C4 photosynthesis in maize Physiology Gas exchange surfaces Changes in cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation with exercise The transport of respiratory gases • Ecology • The effect of carbon dioxide on productivity • Decomposition and recycling maintain the balance of nutrients in an ecosystem • The greenhouse effect is not specifically mentioned but should be credited hereif discussed .

Why the offspring produced by the same parents are different in appearance .

Fertilisation .• Genes • Genes incorporate coded information which influences phenotype • Gene mutation • Environment • Environment variation • Dietary requirements of insects • • • • • Chromosomes and cells Meiosis Principles of Mendelian inheritance Polygenetic inheritance Gametes and gamete formation.

Hydrogen bonds and their importance in living organisms. .

starch and cellulose • Enzymes • Hydrogen bonds associated with nucleic acids • DNA as genetic material. structure of nucleic acids • Gene technology .Hydrogen bonds associated with the properties of water • The passage of water through a plant and cohesion tension Hydrogen bonds associated with secondary and tertiary structure • The structure of proteins.

How nitrogen-containing substances are made available to and are used by living organisms. .

NADP and photosynthesis • ATP and respiration .Nutrient cycling • Nitrogen cycle • The influence of deforestation of nitrogen cycling The uses of proteins • Proteins as biological molecules • Enzymes and enzyme action • Haemoglobin and the exchange of respiratory gases • The use of membrane proteins in the nervous system The uses of nucleic acids and other nitrogen-containing substances • DNA and protein synthesis • Chlorophyll.

.The biological importance of plants to humans.

Ecological cycles • The role of plants in the nitrogen cycle • Photosynthesis and respiration in giving rise to short-term fluctuations and longterm • global balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Plants and food • Digestion and absorption • Diet and dietary requirements Energy transfer • Transfer of energy through food chains and food webs • Biochemistry of photosynthesis .

Humans and microorganisms .

Microorganisms as part of the environment • Decomposition and recycling maintain nutrient balance Pathogens • Bacteria and viruses are examples of pathogenic organisms • Plasmodium and malaria Making use of microorganisms • 12.6 Gene technology may be used in combating disease .

The transfer of substances containing carbon between organisms and between organisms and the environment (25 marks) .


The part played by the movement of substances across cell membranes in the functioning of different organs and organ systems (25 marks) .


Old Essay Titles – bit off the syllabus? .

Water as a lubricant – synovial fluid .constituent of body fluids / blood 5. Transport medium in animals .Role of water in support – turgidity of tissues in herbaceous plants . Transport medium in plants . to loss of heat on vaporisation sweating and heat loss 13. Cohesive properties 4.role in metabolic reactions – hydrolysis 8.reference to freezing – surface tension .for products of photosynthesis – 6.Water as a coolant .source of hydrogen ions 9.maintenance of shape 11.transport of gametes 10.Water as a habitat – 14.Thermal properties of water .The roles of water in the lives of organisms 1.ref. Solvent properties important in role of transport 3. Role of water as a reactant in photosynthesis . Introduction to include reference to the physical properties / dipolar 2.tears 12. Water as a cellular constituent .for mineral ions . Adhesive properties in transport in xylem 7. Role of water in fertilisation .

The roles of pigments in living organisms 1. Respiratory pigments: Haemoglobin .comment on colour vision .photoperiodic effects – 9.role in flowering .vision at low light intensities other references 8.oxygen carriage 3. to role of colour vision 6.roles in photosynthesis 7.occurrence in cones . Visual pigments:Rhodopsin .courtship mimicry .flower markings Melanins in skin .Flower pigments .Roles of pigments in camouflage . Phytochromes . Plant growth and development – 10.ref.anthocyanins / xanthophylls in flowers – 11.some reference to the range of pigments in living organisms 2.Role in pollination .occurrence in rods . Chlorophylls and photosystems .myoglobin . Introduction to include a definition of a pigment .warning .functions 12. Other photosynthetic pigments .carotenes . Cytochromes and electron transport – 4. lodopsin .

Effects on stomatal opening and closing and transpiration – . References to light intensity and wavelength and effects on photosynthesis – 3. Introduction could include reference to the need for detection of external stimuli – 2. Interconversion of P660 and P730 (or Pr and Pfr) – 5. Detection of light direction – 8. Etiolation 7.The effects of light on flowering plants. Reference to the detection of light duration by phytochrome – 4. Auxin and phototropism – 9. Examples of phytochrome effects such as Photoperiodism and Germination of light sensitive seeds 6. 1.

reference to growth curves or population pyramids 12. Variations in fertility 10.Consequences for population trends . Spermatogenesis . Oogenesis: Oogonia 6.Spermatogonia 3.Factors affecting fertility . Primary and secondary oocytes 7.could include references to birth control 11. Introduction could include reference to gamete production involving reduction division 2.Demographic changes. 1. Spermatids and sperm maturation – 5. Credit references to the roles of mitosis and meiosis – 9. Primary and secondary spermatocytes 4.The production of gametes in humans. fertility and the implications for world population trends. Ova 8.

As carbamino compounds – 10. In solution in plasma 9. Introduction could include explanation of term metabolic waste – Function of circulatory system in transport of metabolic wastes – Specific references to production of carbon dioxide in respiration – 2. Transport of urea in plasma from liver to kidneys 6. In ( link reaction and) Krebs cycle – 3. As HCO3 8. 1. From excess amino acids – Deamination –Outline of ornithine cycle – 5.The production and transport of metabolic wastes in mammals. Reference to metabolic water 11. Reference to lactic acid – . Production of urea in liver – 4. Transport of carbon dioxide from respiring tissues to lungs– 7.