You are on page 1of 22

Cholera

Learning Objectives
• What are prokaryotic cells? • How do prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes? • What causes cholera and how does it produce the symptoms?

.

Where does the toxin target? .

• For every symptomatic person there are 3 to 100 people who get the infection but remain asymptomatic. • An untreated person with cholera may produce 10–20 litres of diarrhea a day with fatal results. which leads to dehydration.• The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse painless diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. What does it do? .

What is responsible? • Vibrio cholerae – A curved rod shaped bacterium with a flaggelum. – Bacteria are examples of prokaryotic cells. .

.

A Typical bacteria (an example of a prokaryotic cell) .

Cell Wall • Made of peptidoglycan • Physical barrier that protects against mechanical damage and excludes certain substances .

Capsule • Extra protective layer which can also helps groups of bacteria stick together .

Cell Surface membrane • Differentially permeable layer • Controls entry and exit of chemicals .

corkscrew shape and rotating base help the cell spin through fluids.Flagellum • Aids movement of bacterium due its rigid. .

The difference between prokaryotic (70s) and eukaryotic (80s) ribosomes allows antibiotics to selectively target the prokaryotic ribosomes while sparing eukaryotic ribosomes.Ribosomes • 70S type (smaller than the 80S type in Eukaryotic cells) • Protein synthesis occurs at ribosomes. it can be inhibited by certain antibiotics. .

They possess genes that that aid the survival of bacteria by producing enzymes that can break down antibodies.Circular DNA and Plasmids • Circular DNA possesses the genetic information for the replication of bacterial cells. . • Plasmids can reproduce independently meaning they have use as vectors in genetic engineering.

They have a few feature in common. but what are the main differences? .

Golgi apparatus and lysosomes Where present cell wall is made mostly of cellulose (or chitin in fungi) Membrane bounded organelles are present No chloroplasts. only a diffuse area of nuclear material with no nuclear envelope Distinct nucleus. Golgi apparatus and lysosomes present Cell Wall made of peptidoglycan . in which DNA is located No nucleolus Circular strands of DNA but no chromosomes No membrane bounded organelles Chloroplasts presents in plants and algae Ribosomes are smaller (70S type) No ER. only photosynthetic regions in some bacteria Ribosomes are larger (80S type) ER . Can you put them in right place? Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells No true nucleus.Some of these are mixed up. with a nuclear envelope Nucleolus present Chromosomes present.

Golgi apparatus and lysosomes Cell Wall made of peptidoglycan Nucleolus present Chromosomes present. with a nuclear envelope No nucleolus Circular strands of DNA but no chromosomes No membrane bounded organelles No chloroplasts.Did you get it right? Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells No true nucleus. only a diffuse area of nuclear material with no nuclear envelope Distinct nucleus. only photosynthetic regions in some bacteria Ribosomes are smaller (70S type) No ER. in which DNA is located Membrane bounded organelles are present Chloroplasts presents in plants and algae Ribosomes are larger (80S type) ER . Golgi apparatus and lysosomes present Where present cell wall is made mostly of cellulose (or chitin in fungi) .

How do people get infected with vibrio cholerae ? .

or food that has been contaminated with faecal material containing the pathogen. • Can you think of ways that this contamination might happen? • How about ways to prevent it from happening? .How do people get infected with vibrio cholerae ? • Cholera is transmitted by the ingestion of water.

The second part enters the epithelial cells. . • Ions leaving the epithelial cell creates a concentration gradient and ions from the blood diffuse in to replace them. One part binds to specific carbohydrate receptors on the cell surface membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. This raises the water potential of the epithelial cell and lowers the wp of the lumen. Water flows from the cells to the lumen by osmosis. causing chloride channels to open. • Chloride ions leave the cell and enter the lumen of the small intestine.How does the bacterium cause diarrhoea? • Most are killed in the stomach. • They then produce a toxic protein. Water follows by osmosis. Some survive and propel themselves using their flagellum through the mucus lining of the small intestine wall.

How does the bacterium cause diarrhoea? Lumen of small intestine Toxin Chloride Channel Cl - Cl - Cl Cl - Water .

Q4 on page 67 of textbook . How does the cholera toxin cause diarrhoea? • 3. Suggest how inhibiting flagellum development in the pathogen may prevent the disease. • 4. Which organ does the cholera toxin target? Why is its action so specific? • 2. • Extension: Q2.Questions • 1. Suggest three measures that may be used to limit the spread of cholera.