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Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Branch: Mech Engg Topic : CAM Semester: 5 Raghunathan Rajesh 1 CAD – CAM: Introduction • Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers in their design activities. It involves both software and special-purpose hardware. • Computer Aided Manufacturing can be defined as the use of computer systems to plan, manage and control the operations of a manufacturing plant through either direct or indirect computer interface with the plants production resources. Things taken care of by cam: Verification of the data Panelization of the design to fit the raw material Ability to edit Ability to add manufacturing information 2 CAD – CAM: Introduction Fig : Product cycle in a computerized manufacturing environment 3 CAD – CAM: Introduction • Use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and optimization of a design • Typical tools: – Tolerance analysis – Mass property calculations – Finite-element modeling and visualization • Defines the geometry of the design 4 CAD – CAM: Introduction • Use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control manufacturing operations • Direct or indirect computer interface with the plant’s production resources • Numerical control of machine tools • Programming of robots 5 CAD – CAM: Introduction • Use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) • Allows designer to simulate and study how the product will behave, allowing for optimization • Finite-element method (FEM) – Divides model into interconnected elements – Solves continuous field problems 6 CAD – CAM: Introduction Components CAD/CAM/CAE Systems • Major component is of hardware and software allowing shape manipulation • Hardware includes graphic devices and their peripherals for input and output operations • Software includes packages that manipulate or analyze shapes according to user interaction 7 CAD – CAM: Introduction The vision of the digital factory. Bracht, U. and Masurat, T. The digital factory between 8 vision and reality. Computers Industry, 2005, 56, 325–333 CAD – CAM: Introduction Digital manufacturing links product development, production planning, and facility planning. Woehlke, G. and Schiller, E. Digital planning validation in automotive industry. Computers Industry, 2005, 56, 393–405 9 Process Planning • The process plan is documentation determining all machining operations, order of the operations, all machine equipment, conditions and requirements to producing a part. RAW STOCK PART Machinery operations type of machine type of cutting tool type of fixture cutting condition time, cost DESISION 10 Process Planning methods 11 Process Planning 12 Process Planning 13 Numerical control • Numerical control is a method of automatically operating a manufacturing machine based on a code of letters, numbers and special characters. The numerical data required to produce a part is provided to a machine in the form of a program, called part program. The program is translated into corresponding electrical signal for input to motors that run the machine. 14 Numerical control Link:video\4 - CNC machining 15 Numerical control 16 Numerical control 17 Numerical control – part programming 18 Numerical control – simulation Link: video\3b- CNC simulation 19 Numerical control – simulation 20 Numerical control – part programming example 21 Numerical control 22 Numerical control • So far … A brief overview of CAM • Next An overview of the CNC machines 23 An overview of the CNC machines 24 CNC machines - Motion Control • A CNC machine takes the commanded position from the CNC program 25 CNC machines CNC system elements Part program, Program input device , Machine control unit, Drive system, Machine tool, Feedback system 26 CNC machines Machine Control Unit - The machine control unit (MCU) is the heart of a CNC system. It is used to perform the following functions:  Read coded instructions  Decode coded instructions  Implement interpolations (linear, circular, and helical) to generate axis motion commands  Feed axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms  Receive the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis  Implement auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off, and tool change 27 CNC machines: Components 28 CNC machines: Components Drive system Linear motion – stepping motor & lead screw 29 CNC machines: Components Feed Back System Open Loop Control System Closed Loop Control System CNC feedback Devices Potentiometers are used for position measurement based on voltage ratios. Encoders is a device used to convert linear or rotational position information into an electrical output signal. Resolver is a rotary transformer that produces an output signal that is a function of the rotor position. Tachometers is used for velocity feedback where electrical output is proportional to rate of angular rotation. 30 CNC machines - How Axis Motion Is Commanded • Understanding Coordinate Systems  Absolute Versus Incremental Motion Assigning Program Zero  Other Points About Axis Motion  Assigning Program Zero  Other Points About Axis Motion 31 CNC machines – CNC program The coded instructions are composed of letters, numbers and symbols and are arranged in a format of functional blocks as in the following example N10 G01 X5.0 Y2.5 F15.0 | | | | | | | | | Feed rate (15 in/min) | | | Y-coordinate (2.5") | | X-coordinate (5.0") | Linear interpolation mode Sequence Number 32 CNC machines – Sample program O0001 (Program number) N005 G54 G90 S400 M03 (Select coordinate system, absolute mode, and turn spindle on CW at 400 RPM) N10 G00 X1 Y1 (Rapid to XY location of first hole) N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08 (Instate tool length compensation, rapid in Z to clearance position above surface to drill, turn on coolant) N020 G01 Z-1.25 F3.5 N025 G00 Z.1 N030 X.2 (Feed into first hole at 3.5 inches per minute) (Rapid back out of hole) (Rapid to second hole) 33 CNC machines – Sample program N035 G01 Z-1.25 N040 G00 Z0.1 M09 N045 G91 G28 Z0 N050 M30 (Feed into second hole) (Rapid out of second hole, turn off coolant) (Return to reference position in Z) (End of program command) 34 CNC machines – Sample program O - Program number N - Sequence number G – Preparatory function X - X-axis designation Y - Y-axis designation Z - Z-axis designation R - Radius designation F - Feedrate designation S - Spindle speed designation H - Tool length offset designation D - Tool radius offset designation T - Tool Designation M - Miscellaneous function 35 CNC machines - Directions Of Motion (Axes) Fig – Axis Designation Fig (b ) – Axis Designation for Vertical & Horizontal Machines 36 CNC machines - Directions Of Motion (Axes) Fig – Axis Designation for turning machines 37 CNC machines - Directions Of Motion (Axes) Fig – Axis Designation for milling machines 38 CNC machines – Reference point 39 CNC machines – Reference point 40 CNC machines • Accessories To The Machine - Examples of CNC accessories include probing systems, tool length measuring devices, post process gaging systems, automatic pallet changers, adaptive control systems, bar feeders for turning centers, live tooling and C axis for turning centers, and automation systems. • Programmable functions - The programmer must also know what functions of the CNC machine are programmable (as well as the related commands). 41 CNC machine: motion and compensation CNC Motion •Interpolation – Linear, Circular •The Three Most Basic Motion Types - Rapid Motion (Also Called Positioning), - Straight Line Motion - Circular Motion Compensation •Offsets and Organizing Offsets •Types of compensation - Tool length compensation, Tool Nose Compensation, Cutter Radius Compensation 42 CNC machine: motion and compensation Fig (a ) – Tool Compensation for Milling (b ) – Tool Compensation for Turning 43 CNC machines • So far … A brief overview of CNC machines • Next An overview of the CNC programming 44 An overview of the CNC programming 45 CNC programming CNC Programming Methods Manual Programming Conversational (Shopfloor) Programming CAM System Programming 46 CNC programming Procedure for manual NC programming The procedure for manual programming can be divided into four steps:  analysis of workshop drawings  definition of work plans  choice of clamping devices and necessary tools (set-up sheet)  generating the NC program (program sheet) 47 CNC programming Informatıon needed by a CNC        Preparatory Information: units, incremental or absolute positioning Coordinates: X, Y, Z, RX, RY, RZ Machining Parameters: Feed rate and spindle speed Coolant Control: On/Off, Flood, Mist Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters Cycle Functions: Type of action required Miscellaneous Control: Spindle on/off, direction of rotation, stops for part movement.  This information is conveyed to the machine through a set of instructions arranged in a desired sequence – Program. 48 CNC programming - Program Structure 49 CNC programming - Program Structure Fig (b) – Program Structure ( Block ) 50 CNC programming - Program Structure Fig (c)– Program Structure ( Word ) 51 CNC programming - Program Structure Fig (d)– Sequence of words in an NC Block 52 CNC programming 53