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# FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS THE SCIENCE OF HYDRAULICS

 Branch of science which treats of water or other fluid

in motion.
 Hydrostatics study of pressure exerted by fluids at rest  Hydrodynamics study of forces exerted by or upon

fluids in motion

 May be a liquid or a gas .FLUIDS  Substances capable of flowing.  No resistance to change of form  Conform to the shape of the solid body with which they come in contact. having particles which easily move and change their relative position without a separation of the mass.

and a given mass of a liquid occupies only a given volume in a container.Differences of liquids and gases  A liquid has a free surface. and a given mass occupies all portions of any container regardless of its size  Liquids are practically incompressible while gases are compressible . whereas a gas does not have a free surface.

the application of a given unit shearing stress to a solid produces a certain unit deformation which is independent of the time of application of the force. a fluid is also deformed by a shearing stress but at a time rate of deformation which is proportional to the stress  If the elastic limit is not exceeded. the amount of unit deformation up to a certain point being proportional to the unit stress. and when the stress is removed the solid returns to its original form .Distinctions between a solid and a fluid  A solid is deformed by a shearing stress.

return to its original form. and when the stress is removed the fluid does not. through forces contained within itself. If a given shearing stress is applied to a fluid. . deformation continues to take place at a uniform rate with time.

mass M.Units used in Hydraulics  Fundamental equation relating force F. and acceleration a F = kMa  k is a proportionality factor  Value of k is made equal to 1 by two different systems of defining units .

Gravitational system. in which a unit of mass=g grams weight divided by g centimeters per second per second. g is 32.1.2 ft per sec per sec. in which 1 slug mass=g pounds weight divided by g feet per second per second. g is 981 cm per second per second . a) Foot-pound-second system: 1 lb force=1 slug mass x 1 ft per second per second. in which k is made equal to 1 by defining the unit of mass. Thus for unit force to produce unit acceleration the unit of mass must consist of g units of weight. unit force is acting and the acceleration is g. If a body of unit weight falls freely. b) Metric system: 1 gram force= 1 unit of mass x 1 cm per second per second.

in which k is made equal to 1 by defining the unit of force. gives it an acceleration of 1 cm per second per second.2. a) Foot-pound-second system: Unit force is that force which. acting on a body of 1 gram mass. and is called a poundal. and is called a dyne. Absolute system. acting on a body of 1 lb mass. gives it an acceleration of 1 ft per second per second. 1 dyne force=1 gram mass x 1 cm per second per second . 1 poundal force= 1 lb mass x 1 ft per second per second b) Metric system: Unit force is that force which.

2046 lb Example: How many dynes force are equivalent to 1lb force? . The metric and foot-pound-second systems are related by the following units of length and weight: 1 meter = 3.2808 ft 1 kilogram = 2.

General Properties of Fluids  Unit weight w: the weight of a unit volume of a fluid. in foot-pound-second expressed as pounds per cubic foot  Mass Density r (rho): the mass per unit of volume. where g is the acceleration due to gravity in foot-pound-second units mass density is slugs per cubic foot in metric system density is measured in grams per cubic centimeter  Specific gravity s: the ratio of the unit weight of a fluid to the unit weight of water at 4°C . in gravitational units r = w/g or w=rg .