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HYDRAULICS Fundamental Properties of Fluids

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Branch of science which treats of water or other fluid

in motion.

Hydrostatics study of pressure exerted by fluids at rest Hydrodynamics study of forces exerted by or upon

fluids in motion

May be a liquid or a gas .FLUIDS Substances capable of flowing. No resistance to change of form Conform to the shape of the solid body with which they come in contact. having particles which easily move and change their relative position without a separation of the mass.

and a given mass of a liquid occupies only a given volume in a container.Differences of liquids and gases A liquid has a free surface. and a given mass occupies all portions of any container regardless of its size Liquids are practically incompressible while gases are compressible . whereas a gas does not have a free surface.

the application of a given unit shearing stress to a solid produces a certain unit deformation which is independent of the time of application of the force. a fluid is also deformed by a shearing stress but at a time rate of deformation which is proportional to the stress If the elastic limit is not exceeded. the amount of unit deformation up to a certain point being proportional to the unit stress. and when the stress is removed the solid returns to its original form .Distinctions between a solid and a fluid A solid is deformed by a shearing stress.

return to its original form. and when the stress is removed the fluid does not. through forces contained within itself. If a given shearing stress is applied to a fluid. . deformation continues to take place at a uniform rate with time.

mass M.Units used in Hydraulics Fundamental equation relating force F. and acceleration a F = kMa k is a proportionality factor Value of k is made equal to 1 by two different systems of defining units .

Gravitational system. in which a unit of mass=g grams weight divided by g centimeters per second per second. g is 32.1.2 ft per sec per sec. in which 1 slug mass=g pounds weight divided by g feet per second per second. g is 981 cm per second per second . a) Foot-pound-second system: 1 lb force=1 slug mass x 1 ft per second per second. in which k is made equal to 1 by defining the unit of mass. Thus for unit force to produce unit acceleration the unit of mass must consist of g units of weight. unit force is acting and the acceleration is g. If a body of unit weight falls freely. b) Metric system: 1 gram force= 1 unit of mass x 1 cm per second per second.

in which k is made equal to 1 by defining the unit of force. gives it an acceleration of 1 cm per second per second.2. a) Foot-pound-second system: Unit force is that force which. acting on a body of 1 gram mass. and is called a poundal. and is called a dyne. Absolute system. acting on a body of 1 lb mass. gives it an acceleration of 1 ft per second per second. 1 dyne force=1 gram mass x 1 cm per second per second . 1 poundal force= 1 lb mass x 1 ft per second per second b) Metric system: Unit force is that force which.

2046 lb Example: How many dynes force are equivalent to 1lb force? . The metric and foot-pound-second systems are related by the following units of length and weight: 1 meter = 3.2808 ft 1 kilogram = 2.

General Properties of Fluids Unit weight w: the weight of a unit volume of a fluid. in foot-pound-second expressed as pounds per cubic foot Mass Density r (rho): the mass per unit of volume. where g is the acceleration due to gravity in foot-pound-second units mass density is slugs per cubic foot in metric system density is measured in grams per cubic centimeter Specific gravity s: the ratio of the unit weight of a fluid to the unit weight of water at 4°C . in gravitational units r = w/g or w=rg .

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