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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE The arrangement of positions in an organization and the authority and responsibility relationships among them .

TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONS  Have formally defined roles for the members  Stable and resistant to change  Work behavior tends to be regulated and kept within organizational guidelines and standards  Also called mechanistic or bureaucratic structures  Characterized by an authority hierarchy that is represented in the organizational chart .

narrow span of control Flat organizational structure – short chain of command. wide span of control .Chain of Command – number of authority levels in an organization Span of Control – number of workers who must report to a single supervisor Tall organizational structure – long chain of command.

impersonality.establishes order in the work setting and increases productivity by reducing inefficiencies Characteristics: Specialization of labor. employment decisions based on merit.TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Bureaucracy – typified by a well-defined authority hierarchy and strict rules governing work behavior . formal rules and procedures. well-defined authority hierarchy. and emphasis on written records .

Line-staff organizational structure – composed of one group of employees who achieve the goals of the organization and another group who supports them Line – employees engaged directly in tasks that accomplish its goals Staff – employees with work descriptions designed to support the line .

NONTRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Team organization – consisting of a team of members organized around a particular project or product Project task force – workers who are assembled temporarily to complete a specific job or project .

CONTINGENCY MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Work technology – for maximal performance organizational structure needed to match the type of production technology (small batch production. and continuous-process production) External environment – the organization is affected by external factors differentiation – complexity of an organization’s structure that is based on the number of units. the orientations of managers. and the goals and interests of members integration – the amount and quality of collaboration among the division of an organization . mass production.

Collectivsm 2. Masculinity vs. Uncertainty avoidance 5.ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Shared values. Long term vs. Power distance 3. and patterns of behavior within an organization. Individualism vs. beliefs. Short tem orientation . assumptions. SOCIETAL INFLUENCES 1. Femininity 4.

Change agent-OD practitioner/ catalyst who helps organizations through the process of change Action research-OD methodological model that applies social research methods to collecting relevant organizational data that are used for solving organizational problems .ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD) The process of assisting organizations in preparing for and managing change.

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES Survey feedback – the consultant works with the organization to develop and administer a survey instrument to collect data that are fed back to organizational members and used as the starting point for change T-groups – uses unstructured group interaction to assist workers in achieving insight into their own motivations and behavior patterns in dealing with other organizational members .

their attainment is evaluated and new goals are set Quality circles – small groups of volunteer employees from the same work area who meet regularly to solve workrelated problems .Team building – teams of workers discuss how to improve team performance by analyzing group interaction Process consultation – a consultant helps a clientorganization study its problems objectively and learn to solve them Management by objectives – goal-setting OD technique in which supervisors and subordinates jointly set performance goals. at the end of the goal period.