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Shashank Gupta Yukti Jain


GDP $1.371 Bn Annual Growth rate 3.1% GDP by Sector:

4% Industry 24.6% Services 71.4%

GDP growth rate

Some facts

Inflation 2.2% Unemployment 5.4% Government Debt to GDP 22.9 Population 22.6 Mn 5th in Purchasing Power Parity Ranked 2nd in Human Development Index Sovereign Credit Rating of AAA 13th largest by GDP and 16th largest by GDP per capita

Australian Stock Exchange

Regulatory Framework

Twin Peaks Regulatory Model

Basic Objectives is to check:

Market misconduct - ASIC Information Asymmetry - APRA Anti-competitive behavior - ACCC Systemic instability - RBA

Australian Prudential Regulation Authority

APRA, which was originally established in 1988, has three main types of powers in regulating financial institutions:
authorisation or licensing powers; supervision and monitoring powers; and powers to act in circumstances of financial difficulties to protect depositors, policy holders and superannuation fund members, including powers relating to taking control of entities and/or winding up insolvent entities.

HIH Collapse

Collapse of $3.75 bn Australian Insurance Company Introduction of Probability and Impact Rating System (PARIS) to classify regulated financial institutions in two areas:

probability that the institution might be unable to honour its financial promises to beneficiaries depositors, policyholders and superannuation fund members; and the impact on the Australian financial system should the institution fail.

Australian Securities and Investments Commission

Australias corporate, market and financial services regulator. Regulates 1.5 million corporations, 4,415 financial services businesses and 15 financial markets. It seeks to ensure that Australias capital and financial services markets are fair and transparent, supported by confident and informed investors and consumers.

Council of Financial Regulators

Co-ordinating body for Australias main financial regulatory agencies:


Reserve Bank of Australia (which chairs the Council), APRA, ASIC and The Treasury.



Rationale behind Twin Peak

The combination of deposit taking, insurance and superannuation regulation is unlikely to be carried out efficiently and flexibly by a central bank Separation will clarify that, while the central bank may still provide support to maintain financial stability, there is no implied or automatic guarantee of any financial institution or its promises in the event of insolvency Separation enables both the RBA and APRA to focus clearly on their primary objectives and will clarify the lines of accountability for the regulatory task.

Advantages of Twin Peak Model

Twin Peaks superior to a single regulator because it permits each agency to focus on a single objective:
Political priority likely to be given to consumer protection versus prudential regulation (House of Lords, 2009) Different skills required by consumer protection and prudential regulation

Giving equal billing to central bank and regulatory agency did not work in practice. Recipe for delayed decisions and lack of

Four Pillars

Commonwealth Bank Westpac Banking Corporation Australia and New Zealand Banking Group National Australia Bank

Global Financial Crisis (GFC)

Australia Somewhat more insulated But affects of GFC are very real Housing market has slowed

Global Financial Crisis

ASX on 6 March 2009 was 54% less than the 1 November 2007 high.

Funds- 14% in 2008 Life Insurers- 20% Public Unit Trusts- 16% Other Managed Funds- 38%

Households 10% wealth loss Growth in the economy slowed to around 0.5% Unemployment rate 5% by Nov 2009 (2% rise)

Global Financial Crisis

Economic stimulus package (first) worth $10.4 billion announced in October 2008

situation Payments to seniors and families Christmas spending, reported strong sales The first home buyers grant Automotive industry

Global Financial Crisis

Second economic stimulus package in February 2009 A$47 billion:


billion for schools $6.6 billion for 20,000 new homes $3.9 billion to insulate 2.7 million homes $890 million for road repairs and infrastructure $2.7 billion in small business tax breaks $12.7 billion for cash bonuses: $950 for every Australian taxpayer who earned less than $80,000

Housing Prices

Property bubble??? 2011: Mar Qtr - Home price falls by 6% 2011: Sept Qtr - fall 1.2% 2011: Dec Qtr - fall 1% House prices fall 4.8% over the year 2012: Mar Qtr - fall 1.1% House prices continued to rise throughout 2012

How did they Escape Crisis

Domestic regulatory framework has performed well APRA relatively proactive in prudential regulation

stress tests of ADIs, housing loan portfolios Strengthening the capital requirements for higherrisk housing loans In 2004, APRA introduced higher risk weights on non-standard loans

How did they Escape Crisis

China, biggest importer of Australian mining goods, is still growing economy Not much exposure to toxic debt NPA were about 0.2% of all Aussie Bank loans less than UK(0.9%), US(1.1%), Germany(3.4%) RBA has the ability to reduce interest rates to combat a recession Housing shortage

How did they Escape Crisis

Lesser role of NBFCs they accounted for 20% of all loans Less competition faced by banks Ability to raise short term capital easily due to good credit ratings Government guarantying deposits (three year uncapped bank deposit guarantee) Focus on growth (and not survival)


Australia is leading the developed world not just in GDP and employment gains, but also in the self-fulfilling prophecy that Keynes calls animal spirits: faith that things will get better, which is a prerequisite for their getting better for real.

Lessons from crisis

Importance of good crisis management arrangements:


coordination between provider of liquidity (central bank) and supervisory agency Roleof Finance Ministry (Treasury) as provider of capital of last resort.

Need to deal with the Too Big to Fail problem. Some large firms operate without effective market discipline because the spillover effects of bankruptcy are too great.

Further Fears

Slowdown in mining activity OECD. BHP Billiton reporting 35% drop in profits and delayed expansion plans Probable housing price bubble High Currency Value. Exports Low. Jobs hit Foreigners own 80% of Australian Government Debt High dependence on China