Modern China

Modern Chinese history program at MH developed by Th. Thorhallsson for IBHistory students at MH

Chinese history


Chinese civil war
Chinese civil war 1911?-1949 (topic 1. War...)
– Emphasis on:
Origins of war, political, ideological, economic sources. Civil warfare, resistance movements, nonsystemized warfare or guerilla warfare, revolutionary movements and war. Political, social and economic effects.
Chinese history 2

Mao and Communist China
Communist China (Topic 3 Single-party state) Themes: Origins - Conditions that produced CC. Establishment, methods, form of government, totalitarianism, treatment of opposition. Ideology of Mao and Chinese communists. Role of education, media, the arts, propaganda. Successes and failures in solving political, social and economic problems. Role of women, minorities, and religious groups. Chinese history Impact on world affairs.


? – What do we know about Chinese history.. What do we know about China? – Where is China in the world? What are its neighbouring countries? – Status in the world to day. – What kind of Government do we have there? – What is the contribution of China to the world: in technology.. culture. religion. arts. Chinese history 4 .Introduction.

– Maybe this pattern is still going on. – China is one of the oldest civilization in the world – It seem that Chinese history tends to move in cycles: From rise of dynasty to fall of dynasty to anarchy to new dynasty.Chinese past Why should we probe Chinese past? – It seem that the Chinese themselves are obsessed with history. Chinese history 5 .

Chinese thought “Continuities with the past do exist. especially in thought and attitudes.” – What are these: The Confucian school The Daoists (taoists) The legalist scool Buddhism Customs and habits. Chinese history 6 .

think is womens place in society What is the relationship between ruler and subject according to Confucius? Chinese history 7 .Confucious What are the main principles of confucian thinking? What does C.

– Confucius fifth century BC Chinese history 8 . 500-200 Chaotic period. Earliest kings in the Valley of the Yellow river around 13001200 BC. – Shang knew the art of writing and it is recognizable 1040-770 BC the Zhou dynasty. Period of the thinkers and philosophers.Birth of China The Shang dynasty. Yangzi river becomes part of the state.

To 206 BC – Controlled China south to Vietnam – Standard coinage. improved communication. Subjects revolted against the ruthless legalist dynasty.Unification of China Qin dynasty. Legalist. built the Great wall. standardized writing system. Chinese history 9 .

The dynastic cycle The Han dynasty 206 BC to 220 AD was the first to go through the dynastic cycle Chinese history 10 .

Mongol rule lasted to 1368. Educated civil servants that had to pass the state examination in Confucian classics. Foreign trade. Military strength declined and China became the prey of the Mongol Kublai Khan.Song dynasty 960-1279 The peak of urban culture in China Vigorous Merchant class. Chinese history 11 .

The officials view of society The scholars who rule Peasants who grew food Artisans who make important things Merchants who make nothing but shuffle goods from one place to another Merchants raised the sons to be scholars Chinese history 12 .Ming dynasty 1368-1644 Rule mixture of Confucian and legalist principles. State exams for officials.

Why didnt the Chinese conquer the world instead of the Europeans.Ming cont. Early Ming supported the great merchants adventure around the Indian ocean in the 15th century but late Ming developed distaste for trade and foreigners. Progress and technology slowed down unfortunately because the westerners were coming The first Portugese in China 1514 Chinese history 13 .

low technology and corruption.Qing dynasty 1681-1911 The Manchu invaded China and formed the Qing dynasty. Overpopulation. Dynasty weakens. The empire at its biggest Corruption among the ruling class in the 19th century. Internal revolts and external wars Chinese history 14 .

external pressure – The Taiping revolution.The Collapse of the old order The Manchu government collapsed under both internal and external pressures Example: – The Opium War. Chinese history 15 . – The Boxer rebellion: internal pressure and external when foreign armys helped crushing it. internal pressure.

extraterritorality.The Opium war 1839-42 What was the Opium war about? What has opium to do with it? Why did the Chinese loose the war? What concessions had the Chinese to make? What is a treaty port? The most favoured nation principle. What are the long term effects? Chinese history 16 .

Began efforts to introduce western technology. Chinese history 17 . Li Hongzhan was one of the leaders of the regional armies. The rebellion was chrushed but at the cost of strengthening regional armies only partly under central command even if the were loyal. After 1800 we see the symptoms of downward cycle.Taiping revolution.

The chinese wanted to retain the traditional confucian culture but only use western technology. Chinese history 18 . Only around the turn of the century some Chinese started to think that society had to be changed fundamentally.China and the west Chinese weren’t used to learn from other nations.

The hundred days of Kang 1898 show that the idea of reform was there but it was suppressed. Still the always lacked access to capital.. Chinese businessmen met opposition from bureaucrats in Chinese dominated cities but they were growing in the treaty ports. The empress was afraid of that any changes would hurt the Qing Dynasty because of its Manchu-origins.Cont. Chinese history 19 .

The Boxer rebellion 1899. What can the Boxer rebellion tell us about the situation? Why was there no rebellion in the southern provinces? Why wasn’t China carved up among the western powers? What is the open door policy? Chinese history 20 .

After the Boxer Rebellion. Finally the imperial court showed som understanding of reforms necessary: – Tried to regain control of tariffs – Tried to end opium imports – abolished the old civil exam system – Students sent abroad – New armies formed – Provincial assemblies elected and a National Assembly Chinese history 21 .

Effect of reform The government couldnt handle it Expectation rise Regional governors like Zhang Zhidong in Wuhan and Yuan Shikai in the north were removed from office. Chinese history 22 . – These were however the actual bulwarks of government in the provinces and whith them gone the danger of rebellion increased.

Revolution 1911 Revolution in the provinces Army takes control under leadeship of Yuan ShiKai – Dissolved the parliament Shikai abdicated in 1915 – Made the mistake of proclaiming himself emperor Chinese history 23 .

Warlord Era 1916-28 First phase of civil war in China Warlord: leaders of provincial armies emerging from the ruins of the empire – “strong flamboyant personalities building armies by preying on the peasantry” – Peasants suffer in the “sturlungaöld” Main centers of government in the south (Canton) and in the north (Beijing) Chinese history 24 .

China and WW1 Japan seized German holdings in Shandong 1915 China forced to accept Japanese control of Southern Manchuria An other humiliation for China when Versailles treaty accepts Japans rule of Shangdong Middle class and nationalist anger explodes in the 1919 may 4th movement: – Opposing foreign domination and Warlord rule Chinese history 25 .

Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) Originally founded by Sun Yat Sen in 1912 Sun set up a government in Canton 1917 Revitalized in the May 4th movement 1919 Extends its power from Canton to the North K was able to overthrow the warlords in 1928 Chinese history 26 .

Sun Yat-sen Three principles of the people – Nationalism – Democracy – Livelihood (not revolutionary) Sun was willing to work with communists (1923) and organized the party along bolshevik lines Died 1925 Chinese history 27 .

Sun replaced by Chiang Kaishek Right wing General Middle class Landowners Worked with Communists until 1927 Managed to win warlords 1928 Chinese history 28 .

Mao and the Communist party Mao Tse Tung (1893-1976) Revolutionary leader and “poet” – Founder and leader of the Peoples Republic of China. – Born in Southern China of peasant origin – Joined the revolutionary army when the Manchu dynasty was overthrown 1911 – Advocated womens right and attacked aranged marriage – Joined a marxist studygroup at Peking university 1919 – Participated in the may 4th demonstrations 1919 29 Chinese history .

supressed by the gentry in a feudal relation Chinese history 30 .Communism: beginning Communist manifesto translated and published 1906 Like in many countries with huge peasantry anarchism had been popular Doctrinate marxism did not fit China because in 1918 only 2 million out af population of 300 million were urban workers The peasants were the real underclass.

Beginnings cont. Two events gave the radical movement a start: – May 4th movement against the Versailles treaty Versailles betrayed chinese interest Dissillution with democracy and capitalism – The Russian revolution Revolution in a neighbouring peasant state Li Dazhao urged marxist to go into the countryside Chinese history 31 .

Established in July 1921 –Mao head in Hunan Still Lenin and Stalin later had not much confidence in communism in China and always advocated cooperation with the KMT – The struggle against imperialism Chinese history 32 .Formation of the communist party Soviet agents helped in the organization of the party.

KMT and the communists Russia supported Sun Yat-sen and until the victory of KMT over China 1927 there was cooperation with the communists Chiang Kai-shek studied military science in Moscow After victory Chiang was urged to turn against communist by industrialists and landowners in the party The white terror. massacre of communist workers in Shanghai 1927 Chinese history 33 .

The new revolutionary strategy after 1928 Mao was the thinker of the new strategy – KMT was strongest in the cities so workers revolution was hard to achieve – Peasants were alienated from KMT because it supported the landowners – Mao started to build base areas in the countryside by adopting: Old guerilla tactics Introduced land reform Landlords were allowed to keep some land Chinese history 34 .

The Jiangxi Soviet 1931-34 In Jiangxi Mao formed a Chinese Soviet republic based on his peasant revolution principles Chinese communist returning from Moscow tried to undermine Maos efforts with emphasis on class struggle and a broad front against KMT army KMT was able to chase the communist away on the so called long march 1934 – 1935 to northern China The “bolsheviks” were discredited becaus of this Chinese history 35 .

Chinese history 36 .

The government retreats to Chungking. the Communists decided to march north to Yenan in Shansi (Shanxi) Province. Nationalist troops (under Chiang Kai-Shek) launch a series of military campaigns against the Communists.000 people. They armed thousands of peasants with weapons captured from the Nationalists and left soldiers behind to organise guerrilla groups to harass the enemy.000 people who started the Long March. During the march a meeting of the CCP hierarchy recognised Mao's overall leadership. Instead of resisting Japan. a distance of 8000 km over some of the most inhospitable terrain.Long march In 1931 the Japanese invaded northeastern China and set up a puppet government. a remote area ruled by rival warlords. and a year later the Communist were driven into a small area in Kiangsi (now Jiangxi) Province. Close to defeat. Of the 90. and he assumed supreme responsibility for strategy. only 1 in 4 made it to Shansi. Japan launches a full-scale invasion of China in July 1937. The march proved that the Chinese peasants could fight if they were given leadership and weapons. landlords and tax collectors. and redistributed the land to peasants. Chinese history 37 . America enters the war in 1941 and finds Chiang (Nationalist) keeping his best troops to fight the Communists. On the way the Communists confiscated the property of officials. Chiang's extermination of the communists began in October 1933. and within five months the Japanese enter Nanking and massacre 200.

The Long March Heroic myth Of 100.000 communists 20.000 survived Maos policy survived and became the model for future China The LM provided the future leadership of Peoples Republic of China From the new base Communist would conquer China Chinese history 38 .

Chinese foreign policy 1927-28 – Kuomintang controls all of China. – Communist expelled from the party and links with Soviet Union severed – Civil war between Guomintang and Communists starts Chinese history 39 .

Chinese history 40 .Japanese influence in China 1931-32 The Japanese occupy Manchuria – Was their sphere of influence before Founded the state of Mandsjukuo 1936 Ceasefire between communist and kuomintang 1937 Japanese declare war on China and occupy the coast. Soviet Union supports China.

The War with Japan 1937-45 The effect on the future – Old authorities cleared in the North East – KMT had to turn against Japan instead of the communists (internal-external pressure) – Still KMT proved corrupt and used US money for private consumption – The Communist became the resistance heros – Communist created new bases in freed regions Some landreform – rent and interst control Taught peasant to read and write Chinese history 41 .

USA supports Chiang Kai-check. Chinese history 42 . General Stilwell USA agent in Chine but says that Chiangs government is bad and corrupt.Japanese war against China Mars 1940 Japanese establish a Chinese puppet government in Nanking Fall 1941 USA does not want to make agreement with Japan unless they withdraw from China. He wants USA to support the communists but Roosevelt continues his support with Chiang.

Chaing refuses. General Marshall tries to reconciliate Communists and Guomintang. Chinese communists press for victory before the US public starts to press for armed intervention in China. 1945-48 USA gives Guomintang weapons.After WWII 1945 Japanese have to leave China. (before the cold war start to take effect) Chinese history 43 .

Communist position at the end of war Had already revolutionized big parts of China – 19 base areas with 100 million people Had big experienced army Symbols for reform – independence – national unity – abolition of feudalism The US supported KMT Chinese history 44 .

– Purges against class enemies How was the constitution? How is Government organised? What is the role of the party? Chinese history 45 . Food Shortages. Superhuman task to control 600 million people but Mao managed it.Problems facing Mao 49 Economy and infrastructure in ruins Agriculture inefficient.

How could this collectivization succeed without violence? Nationalization of most businesses Five year plan for building heavy industry – Some success with help from Russia but Mao had doubts.Agricultural and industrial changes Redistribution of land Then peasants were persuaded to enter the coops. Chinese history 46 .

– The party for…. – Campaign called off (to much criticism) and next step was to further advance and consolidate socialism Chinese history 47 .Hundred flowers 1957 What does it mean? Call for criticism – Government for….

Chinese history 48 . Backyard furnaces. Didn’t go well at first.The great leap forward 58 Supposed to increase output the chinese way Introduction of the Commune (30 000 people) – What was the role of the commune? Local government Work organisation Party organ Small factories in the countryside to provide machines for agriculture. Hunger and shortages.

bad harvests. hunger and the backyard furnaces were useless. – After the Great leap the rightists (moderates) wanted to ease things Chinese history 49 .Effect of great leap Historians do not agree on effect – Norman Lowe is relatively possitive Agriculture and small industry did improve The communes did prove a balance against centralization The Chinese way was supposed to be labor-intensive – Most other historians seems to think that the great leap was a total disaster. leading to economic ruin.

Cultural revolution 66-9 Against the right opposition that were calling for incentives. Lin Biao abolished ranks in the army Schools closed en students roam the country exposing the four “Olds”. Chinese history 50 . Mao stuck to socialism. managers. Mao encouraged the red guards to roam the country. avoid the making of a privileged class. Mao called in the army to restore order. The little red book Brought chaos and almost a civil war. and private ownership of farms.

Life after Mao Power struggle after Maos death 1976 – Deng came back and took the leadership from Hua Guofeng and the militant gang of four. capital and technichal know how. Internally he encouraged productivity by lowering taxes and incentives. China entered the international economic world and wanted foreign loans. more freedom of expression and communes were democratically elected. Deng was a liberal communist and tried to reverse the effects of the cultural revolution. Chinese history 51 .

Demands for liberty 89 Right to criticize government Non-communist parties in Congress Freedom to change jobs and travel abroad Abolition of communes Deng was infuriated – Without the party China will regress into division and confusion Chinese history 52 .

Modernization Zhao Ziyang prime minister – Had communal land divided up among individual peasants – Compulsory state purchase of crops limited – This market socialism did have its problems Inflation and increase in imports more than exports Deng wanted to encourage capitalist 53 Chinese history initiative and decentralization .

Gorbachevs visit encouraged demonstrators. the freedom to buy and sell but to deny people all choice in politics? Under what situation is this possible.” Chinese history 54 .Tiananemen Square 1989 Is it possible to have a market economy. The army brought in 3-4 june 1989 killing 1500-3000. Deng believed in the single party system to supervise transition to “social market economy.

Ný konfúsíasmi Fyrrum forsætisráðherra Singapúr talar um asísku leiðina til nútímans: – Kapítalískt efnahagskerfi – Sterkt ríkisvald – Konfúsískur lífstíll Traust fjölskyldubönd Virðingu fyrir hinum eldri Hópvinnu í stað einstaklingshyggju Agi og vinnusemi Chinese history 55 .

After the takeover 1949 1950 Agreement with Soviet Union. Soviet union promises technical and financial aid. Britain and India acknowledge China. Chinese history 56 . China not part of U.N. 1950-53 Entered the Korean war when USA armies came close to the border. Managed to keep US away. 1950 Invasion and occupation of Tibet.

Chinese history 57 . Trying to get goodwill so they can enter UN. Support to African nations. Mao says the east wind is stronger than the wind from the west.China in World politics Zhou Enlai places China in the leadership of neutral third world countries but is not able to reach agreement with US 1958 Cooling relations with Soviet Union after death of Stalin.

New directions
1964 Chinese explode their first atom bomb 1960-70 The situation on the SovietChinese border comes close to a war. Competition for support of third world countries. Eurocommunists confused.

Chinese history


US-Chinese relation after ‘71
US-feels isolated in South –East Asia during Vietnam war Nixon sends feelers to China in the form of Ping-Pong 1971 Nixon in China feb. 1972 From then on relations with Chine have started to normalize.
Chinese history 59

Foreign policy after Mao
1984 agreement about reverting Hong Kong to China (Hong Kong aquired from 1842-98) 1979 Us fully recognize PRC and abandon support for Taiwan China most favoured nation status in US after 1992 After Dalai Lama got Nobel Peace prize in 1989 the Chinese have releaved some of their repression in Tibet.
Chinese history 60

Mynd Chinese history 61 .

Chinese history 62 .

Mao and the peasants in Hunan In 1926 Mao observed the peasant revolution in Hunan and wrote an extensive report that shaped his attitude towards the peasant revolution. – How did the peasants organize themselves? – How many peasants took part in the revolution? – Percentage: Number: Chinese history 63 .

78. 79. 80. How does Mao answer the criticism against the “terror” in the countryside. – What is done with the landlords and the old elite? How far do these actions reach? All the way? – How is the situation of women improved? – How is the situation of the peasants improved? Chinese history 64 . The revolutionary government. Who are the poor peasants making the revolution? P. P.Hunan peasants P.

g wearing tall hats and parading around town) Imprisonment Banishment And only for the most powerful landlords. Chinese history 65 . Yet the peasants still left them with some land and property.What was done with landlords in Hunan Settling of accounts Imposition of fines Compulsory contribution of funds Questioning Demonstrating Humiliation(e. execution.

women gained influence. Were able for the first time to raise their voices and make a difference. Chinese history 66 .Situation of women in Hunan Many women established their own associations. Within family. So-called husband power became weaker and weaker and women had a say in family affairs.

Situation of Peasants in Hunan Removal of feudal system and militia Clan elders lost power Outlawing of gambling and opium Successful elimination of banditry Successful promotion of cultural movement Credit unions established Improved the transport system (eg. irrigation canals and flood-control dykes) Chinese history 67 . Roads.

Short lecture with handouts Due Week after Lagningardagar. Chris Chinese history 68 . – – – – – – – – – – – – The Hundred Flowers 1957 Úlfur The Great Leap Forward 1958 Kristin Jóna The Cultural Revolution 1966 Erna Death of Mao 1976 Hildur Deng comes to power 1978 Katerina Tiananmen Square 1989 Tómas jon bjarni Soviet Union and China Hjörleifur USA relations with China Bragi Art in China HElga Women in China Lea Assel Religion in China Solveig Population and Economy.

were are the similarities? Chinese history 69 . how has it changed? Compare Russia and China.Questions Why was the US angry towards China until Ping Pong What kind of historical break was made with the revolution in 1949 What was the Ideology of Chinese communists.

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