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2013/6/20

Security Level: Internal Use Only

MPLS Basis
Optical Network Product Service Department
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Preface
This course is developed on the basis of multi-protocol label switching technology (MPLS). The purpose of this course is to introduce basic knowledge on the MPLS technology and describe actual application of MPLS in MSTP transport network.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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Guidelines

The key point of this course lies in MPLS technical details and working principle. The difficulty of this course lies in the understanding of actual application of MPLS in MSTP transport network.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4 .References    MPLS principle basis MPLS L2 VPN principle Data board deployment guide HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. LTD.  Understand MPLS technical details and working principle  Understand actual application of MPLS in transport network.Objectives  After completing this course. Huawei Confidential Page 5 . you should be able to:  Know the concept and development of MPLS. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Contents   Introduction to MPLS MPLS technical details and working principle  Actual application of MPLS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 6 .

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. These protocols are located between L2 and L3. When the IP packets leave the MPLS network. so they are also called L2. the router in the entrance analyzes the contents of the IP packet and chooses proper labels for these IP packets. topology information excluded. Switching: MPLS packet switching and forwarding are based on labels. Huawei Confidential Page 7 . For an IP service. All nodes in the MPLS network then depend on these simple labels for forwarding. IPv6 and IPX.. when IP packets enter in the MPLS network. these labels are separated by the edge router on the exit.5 protocols. LTD. equal-length. processable information content with partial meaning only.MPLS  MPLS——Multi-Protocol Label Switching    Multi-Protocol: supports multiple L3 protocols. such as IP. Label: is a short.

. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 8 .Origin: to Combine IP and ATM IP Connectionles s-oriented control plane Connectionles s-oriented forward plane MPLS Connectionles s-oriented control plane Connectionoriented forward plane ATM Connectionoriented control plane Connectionoriented forward plane HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

QoS is hard to be deployed and the efficiency is low. LTD.Traditional IP Forwarding Analyze the IP header and map the header to the next hop Analyze the IP header and map the header to the next hop Analyze the IP header and map the header to the next hop    The IP header is analyzed at every hop. Huawei Confidential Page 9 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All routers need to know all routes of the entire network. so the efficiency is low.

.. LTD. The QoS and real-time services can be ensured.ATM Switching Process Virtual channel connection (VCC) Virtual path connection (VPC) UNI UNI NNI VC switching VPI = 1 VCI = 1    NNI VP switching VPI = 2 VCI = 44 VC switching VPI = 26 VCI = 44 VPI = 20 VCI = 30 Connection-oriented with N2 problems Routing depends on the link layer and is based on VPI/VCI or labels. Huawei Confidential Page 10 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 11 ..A Technology Combining Advantages of ATM and IP + R Router   X ATM switch = X MPLS Router Layer 3 routing: expandability and flexibility Layer 2 switching: high reliability and traffic engineering management Multi-protocol label switching: MPLS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Basic Concepts of MPLS LER IP MPLS domain LSR LER LER LSR LSP MPLS LSR LER    LSR:Label Switch Router LER:Label Edge Router LSP:Label Switch Path HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 12 . LTD.

. LTD.Basic Working Process of MPLS Core LSR Edge LSR Edge LSR IP IP L1 IP L2 IP L3 IP traditional IP forwarding Label forwarding traditional IP forwarding HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 13 .

Huawei Confidential Page 14 . LTD.   IP and ATM are better combined.Advantages of MPLS  The short and fixed-length label replaces the IP header as the forwarding basis to improve the forwarding speed.. Value-added services are provided without affecting the efficiency.    VPN Traffic engineering QoS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. MPLS avoids N2 problems of traditional VPN in configuration and management. such as IPv4. VPNs can reuse their addresses. MPLS solves the problem of QoS..     MPLS supports multiple label generation protocols. that is. MPLS supports multiple standard routing protocols. such as BGP and OSPF. so MPLS has natural dominance of implementing VPN. Huawei Confidential Page 15 . Each VPN forms an independent address. The control on VPN is implemented on PE. such as LDP and RSVP. IPv6 and IPX. MPLS supports multiple network layer protocols.  MPLS supports L2 and L3 MPLS VPN. MPLS features high performance of label forwarding. thus facilitating management and expansion. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Why use MPLS  MPLS combines flexible connection and expandability of the network layer with reliable transmission and QoS of ATM label forwarding. MPLS is connectionless oriented control plane and connection-oriented forward plane. Control service isolation and interconnection between services of VPN. LSP is the tunnel of the public network.      Support traffic engineering.

Questions  Q1: Describe the reason and definition of MPLS. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 16 ..

LTD.. This section describes:  Summary Basic concepts of MPLS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 17 .

Huawei Confidential Page 18 ..Contents   Introduction to MPLS MPLS technical details and working principle Actual application of MPLS  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

The labels (VPI/VCI) of other ATM/FR are a part of the MPLS protocol stack. One bit is S. but unspecified in the protocol. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. often used as class of service (CoS). In this case. LTD. used to nest labels and identify whether it is stack bottom or not.Encapsulation Formats and Labels of MPLS 0 Label 19 COS 22 S 23 TTL 31 32 bits L2 Header MPLS Header IP Header Data The MPLS packet header consists of 32 bits (four bytes): 20 bits are used as labels. the label can be expanded infinitely. Huawei Confidential Page 19 .. The MPLS packet header is located in front of the IP header (L3) and behind L2 header. Three bits are Experimental. Eight bits are TTL. Different encapsulation types determine the location of the MPLS header.

. LTD. This is the best feature of MPLS. Huawei Confidential Page 20 . the label stack can be nested infinitely and thus infinite service support capability can be provided. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Label Stack L2 Header MPLS Header MPLS Header IP Header Data  In theory.

Huawei Confidential Page 21 . L2 packet header encapsulation is still needed.Position of MPLS in the Protocol Stack MPLS is often located between L2 link layer and L3 IP header.. ATM and FR adopt VPI/VCI and DLCI of previous packet headers as the labels. LTD. After an IP packet is added with the MPLS header. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. LTD.Encapsulation Format of MPLS CCC Encapsulation Format DA 6 SA 6 VLAN TAG 4 0x8847(0x8848Broadcast) 2 Label 4 L3Data N MartinioE Encapsulation Format DA 6 SA 6 0x8847(0x8848Broadcast) 2 Tunnel 4 VC 4 Ethernet Data N MartinioP Encapsulation Format 0x8847(0x8848Broadcast) Tunnel 4 VLAN VC 4 VLAN TAG Ethernet Data N L3Data VMAN Encapsulation Format DA SA 0x8100 2 6 6 2 2 Huawei Confidential 4 Page 22 N HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

Introduction to Relevant Concepts  FEC: Forwarding Equivalence Class. they may be bound to the same MPLS label. a set of packets (such as a data packet with the same destination address prefix) with similar or identical characteristics which may be forwarded the same way. The path of FEC data stream is LSP. providing label switching and distribution functions.  LER: Label Switching Edge Router. Huawei Confidential Page 23 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.  LSR: Label Switching Router. Data forwarding is performed based on the labels.  LSP: Label Switch Path: an FEC data stream is endowed with specific labels at different nodes. label mapping and label removal functions. LSR is the core switch of the MPLS network. On the edge of MPLS network.. the traffic in the MPLS network is divided into different FEC by LER and relevant labels are requested for FEC. LER provides the traffic classification. that is.

LSP Ingres s LSR The basic unit of the MPLS network is LSR. LTD. LSP is configured with labels.. A network consisting of LSR is MPLS domain (edge router and core router). Huawei Confidential Page 24 . Egress MPLS Core router (LSR) MPLS edge router (LER) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LSP determines the data output interface. LPS is configured with relevant operations.LSP(Label Switched Path)     LSP is a connection-oriented path with source and sink interfaces.

LTD.. If data packets encapsulated in MPLS format are accessed and no processing on MPLS encapsulation is needed. the label is switched.Operations to Data by LSP LSP defines three operations: Ingress: The data enters from the user equipment to MPLS network edge equipment and the data packets need be encapsulated. the port can be configured as PE. The port for Huawei equipment refers to a port accessing data packets encapsulated in MPLS format. Port PE (Provider Edge): This port is an edge port of the service provider and connects to the user equipment. Egress: When the data enters from the MPLS network core equipment to the edge equipment. The port here accesses common Ethernet frames. MPLS label need be removed. Huawei Confidential Page 25 . Intermediate (Transit): When the data enters from one to the other equipment in the MPLS network core. PE Ingress P P P P Egress PE Intermediate Port P (Provider): This port refers to a port accessing the core network of the service provider. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

2. Structure of LSP VC VC Tunnel Take Martinio encapsulation format as an example.Tunnel is a tunnel of the LSP and VC point-to-point connection is performed. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Use the label distribution protocol or other protocols.Setup and Structure of LSP The setup of LSP is a process that you bind FEC with the label and inform the adjacent LSR on the LSP of the binding.. The setup of LSP is performed by segments. Huawei Confidential Page 26 . you can: 1. To set up the label mapping relationship between adjacent LSRs. LTD. An LSP consists of a Tunnel and VC. Configure static labels without the informing process.

MPLS assigns FEC featuring special packets and the router can simply forward these packets. LSR follows the label to find out relevant NHLFE in the table and replaces the old label with a new one. Then LSR forwards the label by packets.. As a result. The packets featuring the same FEC pass the same path (LSP) in the MPLS domain. LTD. compared with regular network layer forwarding.Forwarding Process of LSP  1. The input/output label mapping table is created on the LSR along the LSP. the forwarding speed is improved. The packets in the network are divided into forwarding equivalence class (FEC) according to the characteristics.  At the network entrance. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. At the exit of the MPLS domain. For the received label packets. the label is removed and the standard IP packet is recovered.  2. Huawei Confidential Page 27 . LER assigns a short and fixed-length label for the FEC packets and then forwards the label from a relevant port.  3.

. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 28 .Cases of LSP Consisting of Static Labels PE 1 Tunnel 3 3 VC 24 40 P 3 3 LER LSP Data A 2 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Data B P Tunnel VC P Tunnel LSR VC P Port 1 Tunnel 3 Port 2 VC 24 PE 2 1 1 3 3 24 40 2 2 3 3 24 40 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 1 1 Data A VC 24 40 P 1 Tunnel 3 3 VC 24 40 P 2 3 Tunnel 3 3 P 1 Tunnel 3 VC 40 PE Port 2 2 1 Data B HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 LDP is not the unique label distribution protocol.. LDP uses information in the route forwarding table to confirm how to forward data. However. .Creating LSP Using MPLS Signaling  Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is specially used to distribute labels in the MPLS protocol. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 29  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. but indirectly uses the route information. Applications of MPLS also need expansion of some route protocols. The information in the route forwarding table is collected by using the IGP and BGP protocols. MPLS-based VPN application needs the expansion of the BGP protocol and MPLS-based traffic engineering needs the expansion of OSPF or IS-IS protocol. LDP does not relate to all kinds of route protocols directly. Expanding the existing BGP and RSVP protocols can also support label distribution of MPLS.

Q2: Describe operations of LSP. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 30 ..Questions   Q1: Describe the structure of the MPLS packet header and know the range of labels (maximum value). HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. This section describes:    Summary MPLS encapsulation format Relevant concepts of MPLS Concept of LSP and setup and forwarding of LSP HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 31 ..

LTD.. Huawei Confidential Page 32 .Contents   Introduction to MPLS MPLS technical details and working principle Actual application of MPLS  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. the VCTRUNK between two sites forms an LSP. Port 1 VLAN 88 VLAN 88 Port 2 MAC Port 1 VLAN 88 VC VC VCTRUNK Tunnel VCTRUNK VLAN 88 Port 2 MAC In the preceding figure. LTD. thus implementing virtual sharing of bandwidths. Encapsulate relevant labels (Tunnel+VC) for different Port data to share bandwidth and isolate from each other. Huawei Confidential Page 33 .Point-to-Point Virtual Shared Dedicated Service Point-to-point virtual shared dedicated service can encapsulate labels for service data in Port or Port_VLAN mode. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.Virtual shared LAN service Virtual shared LAN can create LSP bandwidth sharing through different LP ports and VCTRUNK ports of VB. LTD. Port 1 Port 2 VB1 VB2 LP VCTRUNK VCTRUNK VB1 VB1 Port 1 Port 2 VC VC Tunnel VCTRUNK Port 1 LP VB2 MAC Port 2 MAC VB2 LP In the preceding figure. the VCTRUNK between two sites forms an LSP. thus implementing virtual sharing of bandwidths. Huawei Confidential Page 34 . Encapsulate relevant labels (Tunnel+VC) for different Port data to share bandwidth and isolate from each other. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Q2: In actual application of MPLS.. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 35 .Questions   Q1: Describe the application modes of MPLS in optical network transmission equipment. how to choose the relevant encapsulation mode? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Summary  This section describes:   Virtual shared dedicated service Virtual shared LAN service HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 36 . LTD..

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