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SLEEP, DREAMS, & More…(Exploring Consciousness


Activity Assignment # 1
My Sleep Diary (Taken from Malley-Morrison & Yap, 2001) Using the provided hand-out, record your sleep experience for a week. After you have filled it out, search and suggest strategies for improving the quality of sleep.

My Sleep Diary
Mon How long did it take you to fall asleep last night? (in mins.) Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

How often did you wake up last night?
On average, how long did you stay awake each time you woke up? (in mins.) What time did you go to bed? Did you take any medications to help you sleep? (Y/N)

Did you have a nap yesterday during the day? If so, for how long? (in mins.)
What time did you wake up? What time did you get up? Using a scale of 1 to 5 to indicate how you felt when you woke up (1 = tired and groggy, and 5 = well-rested and full of pep). Using a scale of 1 to 5 to indicate the quality of your sleep (1 = slept very poorly or not at all, and 5 = slept extremely well and for an adequate length of time).

Activity Assignment # 2
• Recording Daydreams (adapted from Jarvis, Nordstrom, & Williams, 2001, and Singer & Switzer, 1980)
Instructions: - Keep track of your daydreams over the next few days and explain how you might interpret the meaning of such dreams during the next class. - Carry a pad of paper or 3 5 cards and during idle moments of the day—before class, waiting for the bus, during a coffee break, etc.—recall and briefly record your daytime fantasies or what they have been thinking about.

• Consciousness: an organism’s subjective awareness of internal and external events in its environment .

States of Consciousness Normal State of Consciousness Alert and aware Alternative State of Consciousness Sleep Dream Daydream Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis Meditation Drug-altered Consciousness .

hormone levels. susceptibility of visual illusions.) . performance on visual and spatial tasks. Examples: physiological changes and behaviors during sleep (They include stomach contraction.Biological Rhythms • – – – Circadian rhythms: occurs every 24 hours Examples: sleep wake cycle Fluctuation of the body temperature (as a response to dark and light) • – – – Infradian rhythms: occurs less often than once a day Examples: Birds migration the female menstrual cycle • – – Ultradian rhythms: occur more often than once a day. frequently on roughly a 90-minute schedule. brain wave responses during specific cognitive tasks. alertness and daydreaming.

Sleep .• Sleep is a behavior AND an alternative state of consciousness • We spend about a third of our lives in sleep.

we often experience hallucinations: false sensory experiences. we have a 50% decrease in alpha wave activity…sometimes referred to as “drowsy sleep.” • During Stage 1 sleep. We may feel a sensation of falling or floating. • 5 minutes . • As we fall asleep.Sleep Stages STAGE 1 • As we lay with our eyes closed we are in an awake but highly relaxed state characterized by alpha waves (slow waves) being emitted from our brain.

rhythmic. • 20 minutes . • Stage where you are clearly asleep. you sleep into Stage 2 sleep which is characterized by Sleep Spindles: bursts of rapid.Sleep Stages STAGE 2 • After about 5 minutes in stage 1 sleep. sleep talking can occur in this stage or any other later stage. brain wave activity.

Sleep Stages STAGE 3 • Stage Three begins your descent into ―slow wave sleep.‖ • Delta Waves: (large. . slow brain waves associated with deep sleep) begin appearing in stage 3 but are increasingly apparent in Stage 4.

• Also experience night terrors.Sleep Stages STAGE 4 • Stage of deep sleep characterized by Delta Waves. • Stage when you are hard to awaken…but still aware of stimuli around you. . • Stage at which children may wet the bed or sleep walk.

E. stage 2. your bodies cycles back to stage 3.Sleep Stages R. • A Normal Sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes.M. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep) • After stage 4. . and into REM sleep.

.E.: rapid eye movement sleep. • Genitals become aroused during R. Known as Paradoxical because muscles are relaxed yet body is highly active. sleep gets longer and longer.M. • As sleep cycle continues.M. eyes dart behind lids.M.R. R. stage where vivid dreams occur. Breathing more rapid.E. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep) • R.E.E.M. sleep even when dreams are not sexual in nature. • Heart rate increases.

Brain Waves and Stages of Sleep .

Myths of Sleep • Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health • Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep • Some people never dream • Dreams last only a few seconds • Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content • It is unrelated to sexual content • May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males .

Theories of Sleep • Repair/Restoration – Sleep allows for recuperation from physical. and intellectual fatigue • Survival Value – Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators . emotional.



on the meaning of dreams Psychoanalytic theory: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning of dream Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream .Freud.a cigar is just a cigar. “Sometimes.K.A.” .Wish Fulfillment – Freud’s DreamTheory… A.

WHY DO WE DREAM!? • Activation-synthesis hypothesis: – Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during REM sleep • Problem Solving – Dreams focus on the problems we have in an attempt to find a solution • Threat simulation – Dreams evolved to help us practice skills we need to avoid threats. .

.Sleep and Dream Disorders 1. waking up during the night. it is the inability to sleep. or waking up too early. Insomnia: – is a common sleep problem. – Insomnia may involve a problem falling asleep.

– there is nothing abnormal about sleep walking. – It occurs during stage 3 or 4 of sleep. it occurs during the deepest level of sleep. Somnambulism – is a formal term for sleep walking. . a time when a person usually does not dream. – more common among children.Sleep and Dream Disorders 2.

. Night Terrors • Occur during late stage 4 sleep and are characterized by high arousal and an appearance of terror but are seldom remembered.Night Terrors Sleep and Dream Disorders 3.

– Often complained about as ―snoring.Sleep and Dream Disorders 4. .‖ – Often interrupts deep sleep stages leaving person feeling exhausted. Sleep Apnea: – sleep disorder characterized by a temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary awakenings.

Sleep and Dream Disorders 4. Nightmare is a frightening dream that awakens the sleeper from REM sleep. – Nightmares are common. .


a social interaction in which one person ( the hypnotist) suggests to another ( the subject) that certain perceptions.Hypnosis • Hypnosis. thoughts or behaviors will occur • . feelings.

Hypnosis Can anyone Experience Hypnosis? • It depends on the subject’s openness to suggestion .

Hypnosis Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? • Hypnosis does not help us recover ―accurate memories as far back as birth‖ • Highly hypnotizable ppl are especially venerable to false memory suggestions .

hypnotized or perform some unlikely acts .Hypnosis Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? • An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people.

Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain • YES • 10% of us can become so deeply hypnotized that even major surgery can be performed without anesthesia • Dissociation.a split between levels of consciousness. • Dissociate the sensation of the pain from the emotional suffering • Selective Attention .

do what is expected of them .Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis as a social phenomenon • Behaviors produced through hypnotic procedures can also be produced without them • PPl.

Hypnosis • Unhypnotized persons can also do this .

‖ • Hilgard’s Experiment .Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis As A Divided Consciousness • Explains hypnosis not as a unique ―trance state‖ where the ―subconscious‖ is under control by the hypnotist but rather as a split in awareness caused by the ―subjective experience of hypnosis.

Perspectives On Dissociation .

. such as pain.Hilgard’s Hidden Observer • Hidden Observer: describes hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences. – Is a part of the person that has the experience. that go unreported during hypnosis.

“You will no longer remember anything you experienced today.‖ .Hypnosis Concepts: Can Hypnosis Have an Effect After The Session? • Posthypnotic Amnesia: supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis.” • Posthypnotic Suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session that will be carried out after hypnosis session is over. induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion. “You will no longer feel the need to smoke after this session is over.

Are they at the same height? Or is the right hand higher than the left one? How much difference is there between your hands? Indicate your responses on the handout. with your palms facing up. It’s getting heavier and heavier. Take a look at both of your hands. listen and respond to the following scenario: Close your eyes and hold both arms out in front of you. It sure has a lot of pages in it.just open your eyes. Close your eyes. It feels like more and more weight is being placed on your right hand. Imagine now that you have your Psychology textbook in your right hand. It feels like three maybe four…all hardback books. The muscles in your right arm are really beginning to quiver. It’s getting heavier and heavier. Don’t move your hands yet . It’s starting to feel like more than one book. Object Weight. Still. It wasn’t too heavy to start with but now you are noticing that your muscles in your right arm are really having to strain to hold the book at that level. You continue to feel your muscles quiver and shake in an attempt to balance the weight of what seems like a ton of books. .Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility Instruction: • Listen to the following vivid scenarios: • Record your responses to each of the scenario on the hand-out provided for the activity: 1. about a foot apart. Feel the weight of the book…you’ve carried it before… you know how heavy it is. you try to keep it level. Boy. are they tense. The weight is forcing your hand lower and lower.

Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 2. The lemon is bright yellow. The sourness of the lemon almost takes your breath away. Open your eyes and indicate on the handout whether or not you begin to salivate. plump and almost bursting with juice. You have just come in from outside.Con’t…. You cut a wedge off of the lemon and bite into it. Lemon Taste. You are hot and your throat is parched. You swallow convulsively trying to rid your mouth of the sour taste. Your cheeks pucker and your eyes begin to water due to the tartness. Some of the juices escape. Close your eyes and visualize the following scenario: Imagine that it is a hot sultry day in August. You reach into the refrigerator and pull out a lemon. The juices of the lemon mingle with the saliva coating your mouth. . trickling down your chin. The acidic juices of the lemon flood your mouth.

The weights on the eyelids are so heavy. but the force is overwhelming. this task is now over. They’ve never had so much weight on them. Keep your eyes open and resist the impulse to close your eyes while I read the following: Open your eyes and stare at the focal point depicted on the screen in front of you. Did you feel your eyes close? Indicate your response by circling the appropriate box on the handout. Keep both eyes open. I know you are getting tired and your eyelids are beginning to drop. They are pulling down… down… down. Try to keep them open. trying to pull them closed. The force is overwhelming. Sleepiness. It feels like weights are attached to them. You can feel this incredible force that wants to close them. The muscles around the eyes are shaking as you try to keep them open. It feels like someone has tied strings on your eyelids and attached huge weights to them. You don’t know how long you can take it without closing your eyes.Con’t….Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 3. . You try to keep them open… to stay alert. Fortunately. The muscles around your eyes are getting tighter and tenser as they try to keep your eyes open. The eyelids are beginning to quiver under all of the weight. Don’t let them close.

notice they are pulling together as they attract one another.. Record on the handout how many inches the two fingertips are apart. Then.. Muscle Activity. It seems to be increasing… pulling your fingertips together… closer and closer and closer! It feels like there is nothing you can do to keep them apart.Con’t….. The muscles in your hands are getting tighter and tighter in their attempt to resist the power of the magnets in the fingertips. Interlock your fingers. estimate the distance between your two fingers again. resist it with all your effort. You can feel the magnetic force. Separate your hands and record your response on the handout.. The magnetic force is incredible. It’s getting harder. Then. with fingers inward. You don’t know how long you will be able to resist just letting the fingers spring toward one another. It’s like the entire gravitational pull of the world is pulling them your two index fingers. They are really starting to pull together. expose your two index fingers and point them straight up.. Now. imagine there is a magnet inside each fingertip.. . interlock your fingers and expose the two index fingers the way you just had them.Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 4. You are doing everything you can to keep them straight and parallel. you can feel the force of the magnetism.. but the tips of your fingers keep pulling together. Feel the tension. listen to the following: Now.. It’s getting stronger and stronger.

Hypnotic Suggestion Demonstration 1: Object Weight Estimated number of inches apart: Juice Increased salivation? Demonstration 2: YES NO Demonstration 3: Sleepiness Eye blink? Muscle Activity YES NO Demonstration 4: Estimated distance between index fingers at start ________ Estimated distance between index fingers at end ________ .