SLEEP, DREAMS, & More…(Exploring Consciousness


Activity Assignment # 1
My Sleep Diary (Taken from Malley-Morrison & Yap, 2001) Using the provided hand-out, record your sleep experience for a week. After you have filled it out, search and suggest strategies for improving the quality of sleep.

My Sleep Diary
Mon How long did it take you to fall asleep last night? (in mins.) Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

How often did you wake up last night?
On average, how long did you stay awake each time you woke up? (in mins.) What time did you go to bed? Did you take any medications to help you sleep? (Y/N)

Did you have a nap yesterday during the day? If so, for how long? (in mins.)
What time did you wake up? What time did you get up? Using a scale of 1 to 5 to indicate how you felt when you woke up (1 = tired and groggy, and 5 = well-rested and full of pep). Using a scale of 1 to 5 to indicate the quality of your sleep (1 = slept very poorly or not at all, and 5 = slept extremely well and for an adequate length of time).

Activity Assignment # 2
• Recording Daydreams (adapted from Jarvis, Nordstrom, & Williams, 2001, and Singer & Switzer, 1980)
Instructions: - Keep track of your daydreams over the next few days and explain how you might interpret the meaning of such dreams during the next class. - Carry a pad of paper or 3 5 cards and during idle moments of the day—before class, waiting for the bus, during a coffee break, etc.—recall and briefly record your daytime fantasies or what they have been thinking about.

• Consciousness: an organism’s subjective awareness of internal and external events in its environment .

States of Consciousness Normal State of Consciousness Alert and aware Alternative State of Consciousness Sleep Dream Daydream Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis Meditation Drug-altered Consciousness .

frequently on roughly a 90-minute schedule. hormone levels. alertness and daydreaming. susceptibility of visual illusions. brain wave responses during specific cognitive tasks. Examples: physiological changes and behaviors during sleep (They include stomach contraction. performance on visual and spatial tasks.Biological Rhythms • – – – Circadian rhythms: occurs every 24 hours Examples: sleep wake cycle Fluctuation of the body temperature (as a response to dark and light) • – – – Infradian rhythms: occurs less often than once a day Examples: Birds migration the female menstrual cycle • – – Ultradian rhythms: occur more often than once a day.) .

• Sleep is a behavior AND an alternative state of consciousness • We spend about a third of our lives in sleep. Sleep .

• As we fall asleep. We may feel a sensation of falling or floating.Sleep Stages STAGE 1 • As we lay with our eyes closed we are in an awake but highly relaxed state characterized by alpha waves (slow waves) being emitted from our brain. we often experience hallucinations: false sensory experiences. we have a 50% decrease in alpha wave activity…sometimes referred to as “drowsy sleep. • 5 minutes .” • During Stage 1 sleep.

sleep talking can occur in this stage or any other later stage.Sleep Stages STAGE 2 • After about 5 minutes in stage 1 sleep. • 20 minutes . rhythmic. brain wave activity. • Stage where you are clearly asleep. you sleep into Stage 2 sleep which is characterized by Sleep Spindles: bursts of rapid.

slow brain waves associated with deep sleep) begin appearing in stage 3 but are increasingly apparent in Stage 4.Sleep Stages STAGE 3 • Stage Three begins your descent into ―slow wave sleep.‖ • Delta Waves: (large. .

• Stage at which children may wet the bed or sleep walk. • Stage when you are hard to awaken…but still aware of stimuli around you. • Also experience night terrors. .Sleep Stages STAGE 4 • Stage of deep sleep characterized by Delta Waves.

M. stage 2. your bodies cycles back to stage 3. and into REM sleep.E. . • A Normal Sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep) • After stage 4.Sleep Stages R.

M.E.M.M. R.R.: rapid eye movement sleep. sleep even when dreams are not sexual in nature. .M. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep) • R. stage where vivid dreams occur. eyes dart behind lids. • Genitals become aroused during R. sleep gets longer and longer.E.E. • Heart rate increases. Known as Paradoxical because muscles are relaxed yet body is highly active. • As sleep cycle continues.E. Breathing more rapid.

Brain Waves and Stages of Sleep .

Myths of Sleep • Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health • Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep • Some people never dream • Dreams last only a few seconds • Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content • It is unrelated to sexual content • May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males .

emotional.Theories of Sleep • Repair/Restoration – Sleep allows for recuperation from physical. and intellectual fatigue • Survival Value – Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators .



A.a cigar is just a cigar.” .K.Freud. “Sometimes.Wish Fulfillment – Freud’s DreamTheory… A. on the meaning of dreams Psychoanalytic theory: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning of dream Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream .

.WHY DO WE DREAM!? • Activation-synthesis hypothesis: – Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during REM sleep • Problem Solving – Dreams focus on the problems we have in an attempt to find a solution • Threat simulation – Dreams evolved to help us practice skills we need to avoid threats.

– Insomnia may involve a problem falling asleep. . it is the inability to sleep. or waking up too early. waking up during the night. Insomnia: – is a common sleep problem.Sleep and Dream Disorders 1.

Sleep and Dream Disorders 2. a time when a person usually does not dream. – more common among children. – there is nothing abnormal about sleep walking. . – It occurs during stage 3 or 4 of sleep. it occurs during the deepest level of sleep. Somnambulism – is a formal term for sleep walking.

Night Terrors • Occur during late stage 4 sleep and are characterized by high arousal and an appearance of terror but are seldom remembered.Night Terrors Sleep and Dream Disorders 3. .

Sleep and Dream Disorders 4.‖ – Often interrupts deep sleep stages leaving person feeling exhausted. . – Often complained about as ―snoring. Sleep Apnea: – sleep disorder characterized by a temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary awakenings.

. – Nightmares are common. Nightmare is a frightening dream that awakens the sleeper from REM sleep.Sleep and Dream Disorders 4.


a social interaction in which one person ( the hypnotist) suggests to another ( the subject) that certain perceptions. feelings. thoughts or behaviors will occur • .Hypnosis • Hypnosis.

Hypnosis Can anyone Experience Hypnosis? • It depends on the subject’s openness to suggestion .

Hypnosis Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? • Hypnosis does not help us recover ―accurate memories as far back as birth‖ • Highly hypnotizable ppl are especially venerable to false memory suggestions .

to perform some unlikely acts .Hypnosis Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? • An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people.hypnotized or not.

Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain • YES • 10% of us can become so deeply hypnotized that even major surgery can be performed without anesthesia • Dissociation.a split between levels of consciousness. • Dissociate the sensation of the pain from the emotional suffering • Selective Attention .

Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis as a social phenomenon • Behaviors produced through hypnotic procedures can also be produced without them • PPl. do what is expected of them .

Hypnosis • Unhypnotized persons can also do this .

‖ • Hilgard’s Experiment .Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness Hypnosis As A Divided Consciousness • Explains hypnosis not as a unique ―trance state‖ where the ―subconscious‖ is under control by the hypnotist but rather as a split in awareness caused by the ―subjective experience of hypnosis.

Perspectives On Dissociation .

– Is a part of the person that has the experience. .Hilgard’s Hidden Observer • Hidden Observer: describes hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences. such as pain. that go unreported during hypnosis.

“You will no longer remember anything you experienced today. “You will no longer feel the need to smoke after this session is over.‖ .” • Posthypnotic Suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session that will be carried out after hypnosis session is over.Hypnosis Concepts: Can Hypnosis Have an Effect After The Session? • Posthypnotic Amnesia: supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis. induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion.

Object Weight. Don’t move your hands yet . It wasn’t too heavy to start with but now you are noticing that your muscles in your right arm are really having to strain to hold the book at that level. It sure has a lot of pages in it. The muscles in your right arm are really beginning to quiver. listen and respond to the following scenario: Close your eyes and hold both arms out in front of you. It’s getting heavier and heavier. are they tense. Still. You continue to feel your muscles quiver and shake in an attempt to balance the weight of what seems like a ton of books. . It’s getting heavier and heavier. Boy. It feels like three maybe four…all hardback books. It’s starting to feel like more than one book. It feels like more and more weight is being placed on your right hand. Are they at the same height? Or is the right hand higher than the left one? How much difference is there between your hands? Indicate your responses on the handout.Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility Instruction: • Listen to the following vivid scenarios: • Record your responses to each of the scenario on the hand-out provided for the activity: 1. Imagine now that you have your Psychology textbook in your right hand. Close your eyes. with your palms facing up. Take a look at both of your hands. about a foot apart.just open your eyes. Feel the weight of the book…you’ve carried it before… you know how heavy it is. you try to keep it level. The weight is forcing your hand lower and lower.

Open your eyes and indicate on the handout whether or not you begin to salivate. The lemon is bright yellow. trickling down your chin. Lemon Taste. You reach into the refrigerator and pull out a lemon. You are hot and your throat is parched. The sourness of the lemon almost takes your breath away.Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 2. You swallow convulsively trying to rid your mouth of the sour taste. plump and almost bursting with juice. The juices of the lemon mingle with the saliva coating your mouth.Con’t…. Some of the juices escape. You have just come in from outside. Your cheeks pucker and your eyes begin to water due to the tartness. . The acidic juices of the lemon flood your mouth. You cut a wedge off of the lemon and bite into it. Close your eyes and visualize the following scenario: Imagine that it is a hot sultry day in August.

Did you feel your eyes close? Indicate your response by circling the appropriate box on the handout. Fortunately. You don’t know how long you can take it without closing your eyes. The muscles around your eyes are getting tighter and tenser as they try to keep your eyes open. Try to keep them open. this task is now over. but the force is overwhelming.Con’t….Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 3. I know you are getting tired and your eyelids are beginning to drop. Keep your eyes open and resist the impulse to close your eyes while I read the following: Open your eyes and stare at the focal point depicted on the screen in front of you. They are pulling down… down… down. Don’t let them close. They’ve never had so much weight on them. It feels like weights are attached to them. Sleepiness. It feels like someone has tied strings on your eyelids and attached huge weights to them. The eyelids are beginning to quiver under all of the weight. The muscles around the eyes are shaking as you try to keep them open. You try to keep them open… to stay alert. You can feel this incredible force that wants to close them. The force is overwhelming. trying to pull them closed. The weights on the eyelids are so heavy. Keep both eyes open. .

. It’s like the entire gravitational pull of the world is pulling them together... you can feel the force of the magnetism. Separate your hands and record your response on the handout. resist it with all your effort. listen to the following: Now. with fingers inward. It’s getting harder.Classroom Activity: Hypnotic Suggestibility 4.. You don’t know how long you will be able to resist just letting the fingers spring toward one another. estimate the distance between your two fingers again. but the tips of your fingers keep pulling together. They are really starting to pull together. notice they are pulling together as they attract one another.Con’t…. Then. It’s getting stronger and stronger. Muscle Activity... Now. It seems to be increasing… pulling your fingertips together… closer and closer and closer! It feels like there is nothing you can do to keep them apart. imagine there is a magnet inside each fingertip.. Record on the handout how many inches the two fingertips are apart. You are doing everything you can to keep them straight and parallel. Feel the tension. Interlock your fingers. You can feel the magnetic force. Then. The muscles in your hands are getting tighter and tighter in their attempt to resist the power of the magnets in the fingertips.. interlock your fingers and expose the two index fingers the way you just had your two index fingers. expose your two index fingers and point them straight up. The magnetic force is incredible..

Hypnotic Suggestion Demonstration 1: Object Weight Estimated number of inches apart: Juice Increased salivation? Demonstration 2: YES NO Demonstration 3: Sleepiness Eye blink? Muscle Activity YES NO Demonstration 4: Estimated distance between index fingers at start ________ Estimated distance between index fingers at end ________ .

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