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PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION

Seventh Edition
by

Karen Huffman
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
Lynn Gussman
Forsyth Technical Community College

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Note to the Instructor
• The following set of slides provides a basic foundation for your PowerPoint presentation of the core concepts found in Chapter 5 of Psychology in Action (7e). • Please consult our website: http://www.wiley.com/college/huffman or the Instructor's Resource CD for additional options, including video clips, figures, tables, key terms, etc.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Lecture Overview
• • • • Issues in Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Drugs that Influence Consciousness Alternate States of Consciousness

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Consciousness
• Consciousness refers to an organism’s awareness of itself and its surroundings. • Levels of awareness:
– TOP: Controlled processes require attention (and interfere with other functions) – MIDDLE: Automatic processes require minimal attention (such as riding your bike) – LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Circadian Rhythms
• Many of our behaviors display rhythmic variation.
– Circadian rhythms
• One cycle lasts about 24 hours (e.g. sleepwaking cycle). • Light is an external cue that can set the circadian rhythm. • Some circadian rhythms are endogenous suggesting the existence of an internal (biological) clock.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Sleep
• Sleep is a behavior AND an altered state of consciousness. • We spend about a third of our lives in sleep.
– A basic issue is to understand the function of sleep.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Myths of Sleep
• Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health. • Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep. • Some people never dream. • Dreams last only a few seconds. • Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content.
• May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

EEG Changes During Sleep
• Electrophysiological instruments can be used in the sleep laboratory to assess the physiological changes that occur during an episode of sleep.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Stages of Sleep
• Hypnagogic state: “pre-sleep” stage marked by visual, auditory and kinesthetic sensations. • Non-REM Stage one Stage two Stage three Stage four • REM: rapid eyes movements, high frequency brain waves, paralysis of large muscles and dreaming
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Sleep Stages During a Night

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Functions of Sleep
• REM Sleep:
– Consolidation of new memories – Role in learning – Absent in lower mammals

• Non-REM sleep
– People deprived of all sleep show greater time spent in non-REM sleep the next night.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Effects of Sleep Deprivation
• • • • • • Reduced immunity Mood alteration Reduced concentration and motivation Increased irritability Lapses in attention Reduced motor skills

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Theories of Sleep
• Repair/Restoration
– Sleep allows for recuperation from physical, emotional, and intellectual fatigue.

• Evolutionary/Circadian
– Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Sleep Duration in Mammals

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Theories of Dreaming
• Psychoanalytic: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties.
– Manifest versus latent content

• Biological: Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during sleep. • Cognitive: Dreams help to sift and sort the events of the day.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Dysomnias
• Insomnia refers to a difficulty in getting to sleep or remaining asleep and has many causes.
– Situational: related to anxiety – Drug-induced: Use of sleeping pills or other drugs can result in insomnia

Sleep apnea: person stops breathing and is awakened when blood levels of carbon dioxide stimulate breathing. • Narcolepsy: Sleep appears at odd times.

– Sleep attack: urge to sleep during the day

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Parasomnias
• Nightmares: Anxiety-arousing dreams generally occurring during REM sleep. • Night Terrors: Abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Drugs
• Drugs are chemicals that have biological effects within the body. • Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change conscious awareness or perception.
– Depressants slow down the nervous system. – Stimulants speed up the nervous system. – Opiates relieve pain. – Hallucinogens alter sensory perception .

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Drug Use and Abuse
• Drug abuse: Drug use that causes emotional or physical harm to the user. • Addiction results from repeated drug use.
– Tolerance: more drug is required. – Drug abstinence leads to withdrawal symptoms.

• Drug dependence can be:
– Physical: withdrawal reactions are noted when drug use is terminated. – Psychological: associated with a craving for the drug
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Examples of Drug Types
• Depressants: • Stimulants: alcohol, barbiturates caffeine, amphetamine cocaine, nicotine heroin, morphine

• Opiates

• Hallucinogens
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

LSD, mescaline, marijuana

Depressants
• Alcohol is particularly dangerous when combined with barbiturates.
– abuse can lead to serious losses in cognitive functioning – involved in nearly half of all murders, suicides, spousal abuse and accidental deaths in the united states – is the third leading cause of birth defects

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Stimulants
• Nicotine is considered the single most preventable cause of death and disease in the United Sates. • Cocaine causes physical damage, severe addiction and psychological dependence.
– Cocaine can interfere with the electrical activity of the heart.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Opiates
• Narcotics, such as morphine and heroin, produce their effects by mimicking endorphins.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Hallucinogens
• LSD- associated with “bad trips” • Marijuana has some properties of depressants, narcotics and hallucinogens at higher doses.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

“Club Drugs”
• MDMA- high doses can cause dangerous increases in body temperature and blood pressure leading to seizures, heart attacks and strokes; can produces long lasting damage to the brain.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

How Drugs Work

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Drug Action on Neurons

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Factors that Lead to Drug Abuse
• Positive associations: the drug is portrayed in a positive fashion in the media. • Biological factors: the drug induces a pleasurable state (usually related to dopamine activity in the brain). • Prevention of withdrawal: person continues to take the drug to avoid withdrawal effects. • Conditioning of drug craving: cues associated with drug use can elicit craving for the drug.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Hypnosis
• Hypnosis is an altered state of heightened suggestibility. • The hypnotic state is characterized by:
– Narrow and focused attention – Imagination – Passive receptive attitude – Reduced reaction to pain – Heightened suggestibility

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Myths of Hypnosis
• People can be hypnotized against their will. • People will do immoral things while hypnotized. • Hypnosis improves memory recall. • Hypnotized persons have special strength. • Hypnosis is fake.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Altered States
• Meditation refers to a set of techniques that promote a heightened sense of awareness.
– can involve body movements and posture, focusing of attention on a focal point, or control of breathing – can induce relaxation, lower blood pressure, and can be associated with a sense of euphoria

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Why do people alter consciousness?
• Sacred rituals • Social interactions • Individual rewards

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Copyright
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E