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Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Part 4 – Recovery process

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@Beicip-Franlab

Flow mechanisms in fractured reservoirs
Water Injection

Depletion

Gas Injection

A

A

A
GOC
WOC

Gravity Drainage

Segregation +Convection within fractures

Gas drive

Diffusion Reimbibition
GOC WOC

Imbibition
Part 4 - Recovery process

@Beicip-Franlab

Water drive

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Flow mechanisms in fractured reservoirs

Main flow mechanism during depletion

GOC in fractures
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

Initial GOC

DIFFUSION
GOC

Expansion and gas drive + Gas segregation within fractures Two-phase expansion (immobile gas) Single-phase expansion WOC in fractures Sg=Sgc P=Pb

Convection in the oil phase within fractures

WOC

IMBIBITION
Initial WOC

Solution gas diffusion to fractures

Part 4 - Recovery process

@Beicip-Franlab

Sg= Gas saturation Sgc = Critic saturation gas P = Pressure Pb= Bubble pressure

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injection)  Spontaneous (capillary) imbibition and/or gravity effects. injection)  Gravity drainage.Flow mechanisms in fractured reservoirs Transfers associated to fluid contact movements 1. If (Non-equilibrium) GAS INJECTION:  Compositional effects: thermodynamic transfers (swelling. 2.Recovery process @Beicip-Franlab 4 . secondary gas-cap. diffusion. GAS DRIVE RESERVOIRS (gas cap expansion. Part 4 . vaporization). WATER DRIVE RESERVOIRS (active aquifer.

c positive effects DPf sometimes significant @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .g.Recovery process 5 .Water-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms EXPANSION CAPILLARITY GRAVITY VISCOUS DRIVE O W W W O DPmf negligible DPcmf positive/ negative effects Dr.

H (gravity head) H= c (block height) if small blocks or rapid water rise in fractures H< c if high blocks (or vertical capillary continuity of matrix) or slow water rise in fractures Part 4 .g.f(Sw) f(Sw)= dimensionless Pc (Leverett function.Water-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms Drive mechanisms involved in water-oil matrix-fracture transfers: CAPILLARITY : Pcm>>Pcf  DPc # Pcm = (IFT/rp).Recovery process @Beicip-Franlab VISCOSITY : Pressure gradient in fractures  viscous drive in matrix 6 .5 GRAVITY :  Dr.5 : rp varies as k0. rp = characteristic pore dimension # (8k/f)0.

Capillarity in water-oil systems * Water-wet matrix: Po-Pw > 0 .gravity forces do not much affect the matrix oil recovery process * Oil-wet matrix: Po-Pw < 0 Po-Pw 1-Sorw 0 oil Sw Po-Pw 1-Sorw .only gravity forces enable matrix oil recovery * Intermediate (mixed) wettability: Po-Pw > and < 0 .water imbibes partially .gravity forces enhance oil recovery Swi = irreducible water saturation water Sw -Drgc Po-Pw 0 1-Sorw oil Sw @Beicip-Franlab -Drgc 0 Sorw = residual oil saturation (forced displacement) Part 4 .water spontaneously sucked (imbibed) by matrix .Recovery process 7 .oil trapped within pores (no water imbibition) .

Specific studies on spontaneous imbibition 1D laboratory tests on a waterwet sandstone . : B. SPE Reservoir Engineering. 1990. Bourbiaux and F.Recovery process 8 . Kalaydjian: "Experimental study of cocurrent and countercurrent flows in natural porous media". Part 4 . Aug.Effect of boundary conditions COUNTERCURRENT imbibition W W+O Predominantly COCURRENT imbibition O Cocurrent and countercurrent (TOTAL) imbibition W W+O W W+O W W+O @Beicip-Franlab Ref.

Water-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms Ultimate recovery from a block immersed in water Average water saturation of the matrix block at the equilibrium between gravitational and capillary forces the end of imbibition (and drainage) by water: S weq = 1 ( r w .Swi) / (1-Swi) c Po-Pw trapped oil z water Sw 0 @Beicip-Franlab 0 Block fully immersed in water Part 4 .r o ) gc ( r .r o 0 w ) gc S w ( Pc w) dPc w Oil recovery from matrix block= (Sweq .Recovery process Drowgc 9 .

c).block dimensions (a.b. Mobilities kr/µ) Po -Pw NECESSARY Lab.Water-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms Assessment of oil production from water-drive • Driving forces: capillarity (if matrix is water-wet) and gravity • Countercurrent and cocurrent flows • Main parameters: . km.block boundary conditions (speed of WOC rise) Ultimate recovery = f(Pc curve. gravity head Drgc) Production kinetics = f((a.b.Recovery process 10 .rock-fluid wettability properties .c) and matrix permeability (km) . Pc. information: + Complete Pc curve (Pc's > and < 0) + Relative permeability curves 0 -Drgc Sw @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .

block height estimation and capillary continuity assessment is a prerequisite to evaluate oil recovery + Assessment of fracture-to-matrix permeability ratio: if not very high.Water-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms Assessment of oil production from water-drive Important reservoir information: + For non-water-wet rocks.Recovery process 11 . viscous pressure drops in fractures will enhance oil recovery (forced displacement within matrix) Concerning field process implementation: the production scheme and constraints have to be optimized to synchronize the rate of water-oil contact rise within fractures and the rate of matrix desaturation. @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .

Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .4 0.8 1 @Beicip-Franlab PC wat PC int PC oil Part 4 .MATRIX CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVES 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 0.6 0.2 0.Recovery process 12 .

SINGLE VS DOUBLE POROSITY MODELS 80 One matrix block 70 60 Water wet Intermediate wet 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .01 Oil wet 1phi_wat 2phi_wat 1phi_int 2phi_int 1phi_oil 2phi_oil 0.Recovery process 13 @Beicip-Franlab .1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Part 4 .

WATER WET 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.Recovery process 14 @Beicip-Franlab .Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .1 1 T50 = 27 T50 = 220 4 1 1 10x10x10 1md 20x20x20 1md 10x10x10 4md 10 T50 = 55100 1000 10000 Part 4 .K AND BLOCK SIZE .

Recovery process 15 @Beicip-Franlab .MIXT WET 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.BLOCK SHAPE .1 1 10 100 1000 10000 10x10x10 20x20x2 2x20x10 5x5x50 Part 4 .Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .

1 1 10 100 1000 10000 2 x 20 x 10 10x10x10 20x20x2 2x20x10 20 x 20 x 2 5x5x50 10 x 10 x 10 Part 4 .Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .BLOCK SHAPE .Recovery process 16 @Beicip-Franlab .MIXT WET 70 5 x 5 x 50 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.

Recovery process 17 .SHAPE FACTOR .03 • a = b = 40.6 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Part 4 .6.WATER WET SHAPE FACTOR  = 4 * (1/a2 + 1/b2 + 1/c2 ) • a = b = c = 20. c = 12.03 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 @Beicip-Franlab 20x20x20 40x40x12.Influence of block shape on recovery WATER/OIL .   0.  = 0.

Recovery process 18 .Water drive in fractured reservoirs Favourable criteria • Isotropic horizontal fracture permeability. good knowledge of this anisotropy if any • Water wettability • Small blocks (horizontal dimensions) • Long matrix block • Low mo Unfavourable criteria • Non-identified horizontal fracture permeability anisotropy • Oil wettability • Large matrix blocks (horizontal dimensions) • Short matrix block • High mo @Beicip-Franlab • Good matrix permeability • (Very) low matrix permeability Part 4 .

g.Recovery process 19 .c positive effects DPcmf negative effects DPf negligible DCmf sometimes significant @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .Gas-Oil matrix-fracture transfer mechanisms EXPANSION GRAVITY CAPILLARITY VISCOUS DRIVE G G DIFFUSION DPmf significant if P<Pb Dr.

Liquid (oil) always wetting .Capillarity in gas-oil systems .Recovery process 20 @Beicip-Franlab .Gravity alone is the driving mechanism of oil recovery .capillary forces always counteract gravity forces .Matrix blocks having a height lower than cmin= Pd/Drg cannot be drained at all. Pg-Po Drgc Pd 0 1-Sorg-Swi Sg gas Sorg = residual oil saturation Swi = irreducible water saturation Part 4 .There exists a minimum pressure (displacement pressure Pd) below which gas cannot enter the matrix .

r g ) gc S g ( Pc g ) dPc g Oil recovery from matrix block = Sgeq / (1-Swi) Pg.Ultimate oil recovery by gravity drainage Average gas saturation of the matrix block at the equilibrium between gravitational and capillary forces at the end of gas-oil drainage: S geq = 1 ( r o .Recovery process 21 .r g ) gc 0 ( r o .Po 0 z Gas Droggc Pd Sg Trapped oil 0 @Beicip-Franlab c Block fully immersed in gas Part 4 .

The oil can flow from one block to another: the effective block height controlling the final oil recovery from the stack of blocks is equal to the height of the stack.Capillary continuity and gas-oil gravity drainage Existence of porous bridges between superposed blocks (= capillary continuity) has two effects: 1. The interfaces between superposed blocks form flow restrictions: the kinetics of drainage of the stack is less than that of a single block of equivalent height. 2. Capillary c continuity c Effective height=2c (c= vertical distance between 2 fractures) Part 4 .Recovery process 22 @Beicip-Franlab .

Recovery process Oil reimbibition @Beicip-Franlab 23 .Impact of heterogeneities on gravity drainage Flow barriers may exist within the matrix medium (impermeable beds). with the following consequences:  the effective block height is reduced (lower matrix oil recovery)  the oil produced from the upper blocks into the fractures just above the barrier(s) may reimbibe the lower blocks if already drained by gas (this reimbibition phenomenon will not be significant if matrix desaturation follows GOC movement in fractures). Flow barriers (km=0) c Effective block height= c/4 (c= vertical distance between 2 fractures) Part 4 .

c3 > cmin (cmin : height of capillary holdup zone) Gas Dynamics of drainage Final Sg profile c3 cmin cmin 3 Oil Sgmax flow-restricted porous bridges c2 2 c1 cmin 1 cmin @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .Impact of capillary continuity on gravity drainage Experiment on a stack of 3 blocks: c1> cmin .Recovery process 24 . c2 < cmin .

Pc.Recovery process 25 .block height (c) and cross-section (if lateral gas invasion) . km. Oil Mobility kro/µo) NECESSARY Lab. (a.b). shape) Part 4 .matrix permeability (km) .capillary curve Ultimate recovery = f(Pc curve. gravity head Droggc) Production kinetics = f(c. including IFT versus P Pg-Po Droggc Sg 0 @Beicip-Franlab + Pc curve (depending on IFT) + Relative permeabilities (end-points.Assessment of oil production from gravity drainage • Driving force: gravity (adverse effect of capillary forces) • Main parameters: . information: + PVT data.

.. Part 4 . + The contribution of convection and diffusion phenomena has to be estimated (from production history.Assessment of oil production from gravity drainage Important reservoir information: + Assessment of the effective block height (vertical capillary continuity of the matrix. PVT.) for well-fractured reservoirs and for small-blocks reservoirs subjected to an external gas drive..Recovery process 26 @Beicip-Franlab . horizontal flow barriers) is a prerequisite to evaluate oil recovery by gas-oil gravity drainage + Horizontal flow barriers or restrictions within the matrix also control the recovery kinetics (lateral dimensions of matrix blocks may then play a significant role) + The field production strategy (pressure maintenance or depletion) controls gas drive efficiency.

Influence of block shape on recovery GAS/OIL .SENSITIVITY RUNS : BLOCK HEIGHT and MATRIX PERMEABILITY 60.Recovery process 27 @Beicip-Franlab here c < cmin .00 40.00 10.01 0.00 Final recovery depends on Block height 20.00 Kinetics improves with Matrix permeability increase 30.00 0.00 50.00 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Part 4 .

00 25.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Part 4 .Influence of block shape on recovery GAS/OIL .00 @Beicip-Franlab 0.INFLUENCE OF THE MATRIX BLOCK SHAPE 5 x 5 x 50 45.00 0.00 20.00 2 x 20 x 10 30.00 40.00 5.00 35.Recovery process 28 .00 20 x 20 x 5 15.01 0.00 10.

Recovery process 29 .Influence of Block size and Re-imbibition on Recovery Impact of vertical block size and block to block re-imbibition ratio on gas oil contact 1962 0 1966 1970 1974 1978 Date 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 1962 0 1966 1970 1974 1978 Date 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 GOC Measured Depth Vertical Block Size = 20 ft 1000 Vertical Block Size = 50 ft Vertical Block Size = 100 ft Vertical Block Size = 150 ft 2000 Vertical Block Size = 200 ft GOC Measured Depth No Re-imbibition 1000 20% Re-imbibition 40% Re-imbibition 60% Re-imbibition 2000 80% Re-imbibition Full Re-imbibition 3000 Depth (ft) 3000 4000 Depth (ft) 4000 5000 5000 6000 6000 b a Gas c Oil reimbibition @Beicip-Franlab Oil SPE 93760 – Iranian giant field Part 4 .

2 0.Influence of Block size and Re-imbibition on Recovery Matrix oil saturation in a selected cell 1 Fast Kinetic 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.8 Slow recovery So = 1-Swi (14%) Oil Saturation (Fraction) 0.6%) History Match 1947 1957 1967 1977 1987 1997 2007 2017 2027 2037 Forecast 2047 2057 2067 2077 2087 2097 @Beicip-Franlab Date (year) SPE 93760 – Iranian giant field Part 4 .Recovery process 30 .4 0.1 0 1937 C= 80 ft α = 20% C= 20 ft α = 85% So = Sorg (25.7 0.

Small block height and/or presence of horizontal permeability restrictions (high matrix permeability anisotropy) .Thick oil column .Gas drive in fractured reservoirs Favourable criteria .Large block height (capillary continuity.Recovery process 31 . .Low mo .Good matrix permeability Unfavourable criteria . no barriers) .High mo .Thin oil column .(Very) low matrix permeability @Beicip-Franlab Part 4 .High fracture permeability (especially vertically).Low fracture permeability .