DETERGENTS Which means ‘to clean’ It’s means not only laundry Soaps and synthetic washing powders

and liquids but all sanitizer ,metal cleaner, hard cleaners, and etc… > Soaps are manufactured from natural oils and fats. > Synthetic detergents are synthesized from chemicals. Laundry Soaps and detergents are sold in cake, flake, bar, powder and liquid forms. There are 13 species of sapindaceous plants which grow in tropical and sub tropical regions of Asia and North and South America and on islands in the Pacific Ocean.

These plants bear yellow, orange or brown berries with a leathery covering. The fruit and even the leaves of these plants contain saponin. Soponin: Produces lather when soaked in water and rubbed and also it’s active cleaning agents in soap nuts. Reeta-nut – Friut of sapindus mukorossi, north india. - Leather in hard water .

Linolic acid C17H31COOH .Oleic acid C17H33COOH 4.These yield long chain fatty acids . .it’s obtained from natural oils.The fatty acids commonly found in nature are 1.Composition of soaps and synthetic detergents: Coposed two parts: Active ingredients Builders Other additives Active Ingredients: . fats.palmitic acid C15H31COOH 2. tallow and lard.Stearic acid C17H35COOH 3. .

OCR I CH2. tristearin. triolein GENERAL STRUCTURE : CH2 . OCR R – C15H31. O. O. OCR I CH. O . C17H33 . that is tripalmitin. C17H35.These fatty acids occur in nature as the tri-glycerides.

% of carboxylic acid in various oils OILS PALMITIC ACID 7-15 35-45 STERIC ACID 1-3 5 OLEIC ACID 70-85 40-50 LINOLIC ACID 3-15 10 OLIVE OIL PALM OIL COCONUT OIL TALLOW 10 - 7 - 30 15-25 40-50 - .

or surfactants. They are said to make water "wetter. Chemicals that are able to do this effectively are called surface active agents.BUILDERS:  Give the bulk to the detergents  Inorganic compounds like carbonates. MOISTURE AND FILLERS. BLUING AGENTS. ANTI-CORROSION AGENTS. silicates.such as loosening. SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS In the cleaning process. . FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENERS. surface tension must be reduced so water can spread and wet surfaces." – Surfactants perform other important functions in cleaning. phosphates OTHER ADDITIVES: BLEACHING AGENTS. emulsifying (dispersing in water) and holding soil in suspension until it can be rinsed away.

Oleychloride  Amphoteric (either positive or negative charge). Eg: Alkyl-phenol-ethylene  Cationic (positive charge) Eg:TMED . Eg: Soaps  Nonionic (no charge). Eg: Softeners and dye-fix .CLASSIFICATION Surfactants are classified by their ionic (electrical charge) properties in water:  Anionic (negative charge).

SOAPS Soap is a cleansing agents produced by the reaction between sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide with animal fats or vegetable oils. . three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of glycerine. There are many types of triglycerides. This reaction is known as saponification. In a triglyceride molecule. Each fat or oil is made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides. Fats and oils The fats and oils used in soap making come from animal or plant sources. each type consists of its own particular combination of fatty acids.

Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. . They are weak acids composed of two parts: A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom. and one carbon (C) atom. Generally. it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two hydrogen (H) atoms. plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. two oxygen (O) atoms.

but they are now made commercially. the alkalis used in soap making were obtained from the ashes of plants. Originally. The common alkalis used in soap making are sodium hydroxide (NaOH). and potassium hydroxide (KOH).Alkali An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. also called caustic potash. . also called caustic soda.

MEANING OF SOAP • • Salt that are formed by neutralization between a fatty acid and an alkali. CH3 (CH2)14COO ˉ Na +. Soaps are sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids that contains 12 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule. NaOH.CH2-CH2CH2-CH2.COO− Na+ Non-polar hydrocarbon chain ionic end • (Soluble in non polar substances) (Soluble in water) Example: • One example of soap is sodium palmitate. CH3(CH2)14COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3(CH2)14COONa(aq) +H2O(l) Potassium stearate. CH3(CH2)16COO-K+ .CH2-CH2.CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2. • It is formed when palmatic acid is neutralized by sodium hydroxide.CH2-CH2. • General formula: RCOOˉNa+ or RCOO ˉK+ The structure of a soap molecule is represented below: CH3-CH2-CH2.

• In ancients time. soap made from ashes of plants which contain sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. • Caustic potash is then boiled with the animal fats to produce soap. a) Ash + Lime boiled (K2CO3) (CaO) Caustic Potash (KOH) b) Caustic Potash + Animal Fats boiled Soap . The ashes were boiled with lime (calcium oxide) to produce caustic potash (potassium hydroxide).

This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) plus glycerine. . •The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap).How Soaps are Made Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soap making process. •The other major soap making process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. •Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerine.


is hydrophobic ( do not like to dissolves water) . positively charged 2.Properties of soap depends on a) Type of alkali used for saponification b) Type of animal fats or vegetable oils used Structure of soap molecule. contains the – C – O – ion 3. When soap is dissolved in water. The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions which consists two parts: A) THE ‘ HEAD’ 1. is a long hydrocarbon chain 3. is hydrophilic ( like to dissolves water) B) THE ‘TAIL’ 1. negatively charged 2. it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and carboxylate ions.

The diagrammatic representation of the soap ion.The molecular model of the palmitate ion. .

It is called the hydrophilic (water-loving) end. . It is known as the hydrophobic (water-hating) end.The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and repelled by water.

ionic detergent Example : R –O –CH CH OH . b) Cationic Detergent Head of the detergent particle contains a positively charged ion. • It is a kind of petrochemicals. a) Anionic Detergent b) Cationic Detergent c) Non. TYPES There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion.ionic detergent a) Anionic Detergent Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions. Example : R – N(CH ) Br c) Non.DETERGENTS Definition of Detergent • Detergent is a synthetic cleansing agents which is made from hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum fraction.

a) Anionic Detergent Divide into two types: > Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring) Example : R – O – SO Na .

Steps 1: Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid Step 2: Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution. The detergent.> Sodium alkyl sulphate ( without a benzene ring) Example : R – OSO Sub classes: Alkyl aryl sulphonates Sulphonated olefins Sulphonated methyl-esters Long chain fatty alcohol sulphates Preparation of detergents 1. sodium alkyl sulphate can be prepared from alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to18 carbon atoms in two steps. CH (CH ) CH OH Detergent prepared from dodecan – 1 – ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate / sodium lauryl sulphate .ol.1. Example : Dodecan .

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