While selecting the method of washing the main factors to be considered are(i) How dirty is the fabric (ii) What

kind of fabric it is i.e., cotton, silk, wool, rayon, nylon, and so on (iii) Whether it is coloured or white. Laundering is generally done by: i Friction Washing ii Kneading and Squeezing iii Washing by machines

(I) FRICTION WASHING • This method is suitable for washing strong fabrics like cotton. Friction can be applied as follows: a) Washing by hand friction: This means rubbing vigourously with the hand. It is suitable for cleaning very soiled small articles like small garments, handkercheif, etc. It is economical in the use of soap. b) Friction by use of a plastic scrubbing brush: It is suitable for very soiled household articles made of strong fabric, eg., dusters.

(II) WASHING BY KNEADING AND SQUEEZING This method is used for delicate fabrics like silk. This method does not damage the fabric or change its shape as only gentle rubbing with hands is done. woollens.c) Beating with a stick: Large articles like bed sheets are washed by this method but this might damage the fabric. rayon. . etc.

automatic and semi-automatic. Now a days it is being used at home also. curtains. The instructions with the machine should be read carefully before using it. etc . especially useful for large institutions. • The advantage of using washing machines is that you can dry the clothes in the spinner so that manual wringing of clothes is avoided. • Woollens take less time than cottons to get cleaned. Washing machines are available in two models . The washing time varies with types of fabrics and amount of soiling.(III) WASHING BY MACHINES • Washing machine is a labour saving device. • This is specially useful while washing heavy articles like bedcovers.

After the washing phase. . rinses. Semi automatic: The operator has to intervene a number of times. the wash water has to be let out by the user.WASHING MACHINES To-day more and more people are adopting washing machines. with one setting of the controls. extracts water and stops. fills itself with water at a set temperature. These may be Fully automatic: Which. Further any of these could be front loading or top-loading. washes.ach time. all without further attention on the part of the operator. The rinse water has to be filled and drained out e. Manually operated: 50 percent of the work is manual. tumble wringer type or spinner type.

The selection of a metered fill washer is a better choice. It requires the user to be a little more attentive in adjusting the timer control dial to a proper fill period and then re-set the dial for the wash time.AUTOMATIC WASHER All washing machines perform the following operations but the details of their functioning vary. The time fill arrangement system works satisfactorily wherever the water pressure is normal and constant. .This method permits uniform regulation of the amount of water which comes into the wash basket both during the initial fill for the wash period and during subsequent fills for the rinse period Time fill . It gives uniformity of operation inspite of variations in water pressure. It provides greater flexibility of action.A control timer on the washer allows a specified length of time for the water to fill before the wash phase of the cycle begins. These are discussed below. Filling up of water There are basically two ways in which the washer fills itself: Metered fill . since it will always fill to the proper level before the washing begins.

In some washers there is a combination of thermostatic control and mechanical mixing so that the hot water is mixed with the thermostatically controlled warm water to provide medium water temperature. There are various choices like: • A hot wash followed by a warm rinse • A warm wash followed by a warm rinse • A hot wash followed by a cold rinse • A warm wash followed by a cold rinse • A cold wash followed by a warm rinse • A cold wash followed by a cold rinse There are three systems in current use for controlling the temperature selected: • Thermostatic control . .The mixing valve in this system works on a mechanical principle. • Combination control . or the thermostatically controlled warm water is mixed with cold to provide cool water temperature. This system provides a wider range of temperatures. which is not really necessary.REGULATION OF TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER – All automatic washers provide a dial or button which permits the selection of the desired temperature.A thermostatically controlled mixing valve regulates the temperature of the incoming water. • Mechanical mixing .

Thus water can be adjusted to the size of the load to be washed. This feature permits the user to pre-select the amount of water entering the washer. viz.WATER LEVEL CONTROL Automatic Control – Some may provide an additional feature. Others have various gradations in between these settings Manual Control – The user has to remain close to the machine during the "fill period". Obviously. the automatic water level control is more convenient. This control may be either automatic or manual. . Some washers have a control dial indicating low. water level control. A button or a switch has to be manipulated to stop the water flow when the desired level is reached. medium or normal. The same has to be done at the rinse.

THE WASHING The principle on which washing is based is the flexing of fabrics in washing solution with currents of that solution being used to carry the dirt away from the fabric. The agitator is provided with blades or fins. The washing machine uses three major methods to bring about washing: AGITATION This type of washing takes place in a top-loading machine with a vertically positioned agitator in the centre. The movement of the agitator may either be rotational or oscillating . The movement of the agitator causes currents in the water within the tub which gently forces water through the clothes.

This reciprocal action produces water currents within the tub.Pulsation In some toploading washers the movement is brought about by a vertical pulsator. which moves up and down vertically and very rapidly. the clothes are carried near the top by a series of baffles and are dropped into the wash water. Maximum care is required in loading clothes into the washer to prevent excessive entangling of clothes. Tumbling Washing takes place in a horizontally placed drum or cylinder which is perforated and which revolves inside a partially filled tub of water. There is no agitator or pulsator. The pulsator. . With each revolution of the wash basket. In this type of washing the clothes move through the water while in the two previous cases the water moves through the clothes.

If the rinse is not thorough the clothes may appear grey and dingy and they may also take on a hard and stiff hand. The wash basket is filled with water (either metered or time fill) agitation. There are three types of rinses: Spray rinse In this type. Power rinse This rinse is basically a repetition of the wash phase of the cycle.THE RINSING The rinse is a very important phase of the wash cycle because it directly affects the appearance of the clothes. except that the water temperature is usually warm or cold and detergent is not added to the water. This rinse is most effective in removing dirt and detergent residue and in flushing out all the sud" at the end of the wash phase. . pulsation or tumbling occurs in order to complete the removal of dirt and detergent residue. clean fresh water is injected into the spinning tub.

When water in the area contains iron or mineral salts. Water continues to enter the washer during the entire rinse period so that the dirt or detergent residue is floated over the top of the tub. . However heavy dirt or sand will not float and cannot be satisfactorily removed.Over-flow rinse – As the name implies the wash basket over-flows. an overflow rinse tends to stain clothes which act as a filter during the overflow rinse phase. Excessive amounts of water are used in this type of rinse. This is a satisfactory way of removing soil.

Perforated tub or wash basket .Water extraction The water removal phase occurs after the wash phase as well as after each rinse phase of the cycle. It may be accomplished in three ways:  Spinning  Bottom-drain  Combination bottom-drain and spin Types of tubs 1. Solid tubs or wash basket 2.

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commonly known as “perc” .Dry cleaning: It is any cleaning process for clothing and textile using an organic solvent other than water It uses fluids to remove the soil and stain from fabric It helps to return the garments to a “like new” To prevent shrinkage . loss of colour and fabric distortion The solvent used by almost 90% of all dry cleaners is perchloroethylene.

Solvents used: • • • • • Perchloroethylene High flash point hydrocarbons DF-2000 Modified Hydrocarbon Blends Glycol ethers Liquid CO2 .

CLOTHES DRYER • A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles. • Most dryers consist of a rotating drum called a tumbler through which heated air is circulated to evaporate the moisture from the load. The tumbler is rotated to maintain space between the articles in the load. generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. .

• For these reasons. as well as to save energy. many people use open air methods such as a clothes line and clotheshorse . Become less soft (due to loss of short soft fibres/ lint).• Using these machines may cause clothes To shrink.

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