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Aaron Deupree Kirsty Gillies Heike Koester Feriha Ramadan

Subgroup (not subculture) according to Jandt

(2007): psychologists label this as a membership group based on vocation, hobby, or special skills, that, like cultures, provide patterns of behavior and values: these can be generational, occupational, expatriate, etc. These may pose communication problems with other subgroups just as the dominant culture they exist within and depend on may clash with other cultures.

Examples of Subgroups
Examples include: Generation Xers, college freshmen,

prostitutes, vegetarians, doctors, teachers, Disney Corp. employees, punks, bikers and lesbian culture. Sometimes they are also know as deviant culture, which has no negative connotation, but simply reflects divergence from the greater culture they exist within. Membership can be longlasting or temporary but it is not exclusive. Like the larger cultures they exist within, members behave and think according to norms the subgroup endorses or espouses.

Argot (jargon, cant, slang)

They can also be identified by argot, which is the

vocabulary of a subgroup, and is an important aspect of a subgroups identity and establishes the boundary of the subgroup. Indeed, terms applied pejoratively to a subgroup can help establish that culture. In some cases, the subgroups adopt such terms and give them new meanings and establish pride based on the identity whereas the word might have been a source of shame before.

For your date range, in your group, in the next 2-3 minutes, think of as many events, products, or other important items you can think of for that era, and record it on the paper.
Can you identify any tendencies of that generation from your own experiences or interaction with them?

The Generations
Generation Baby Boomers Year 1946 to 1964 (Wikipedia) (Strauss and Howe Generations: 1943-1960) Other Names

Generation X

(1961-1964) 1965 to 1981 1961-1984 (some articles)

Gen-X, baby bust (latchkey kids, videogeneration)

Gen-Y, Millennial Generation, Baby Boom Echo, Echo Boomers

Generation Y

1980-1999 (Wikipedia) 1981-2000 1982-2001 (9/11)

Demographers have not reached a consensus on dates

Date ranges are guidelines and are not clearly defined. Virtually every article read had different date ranges.

At times, terms were used for radically different date ranges.

The Baby Boomer Experience

Sputnik; walk on the moon
New technology: transistor radios, television, space race Sexual freedom, Roe vs. Wade, drug experimentation Movements: civil rights, women, environment Assassinations: JFK, Robert Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin

Luther King Music: Rock and Roll, Beatlemania, Motown US (Woodstock, Vietnam War), India (independence), Canada (Trudeau) Source: Wikipedia

Baby Boomer Characteristic Tendencies

Individualism Free spirited Social cause oriented

Source: Wikipedia

Experiences of Generation X
The Chinese government killed protesters in

Tiananmen Square. The U.S. stock market crashed. The Chernobyl nuclear accident occurred. The Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill. The Challenger space shuttle exploded. The first computer disk was sold. Diana Oblinger

Generation X The generation X (1961-1984)

Generation X is consistently characterized by being the first American generation to grow up as latchkey kids having a set of parents working outside of the home. Generation X grew up with:

cold war a high divorce rate MTV the first wave of computers and modern technology socially acceptable and media-driven casual sex.

Generation X in the workplace

Gen X requires flexible schedules, democratic leadership, variety in work duties, the ability to grow skill sets and recognition.. It has come of age in the information age, an era of constant activity, change and ever developing global marketplace. After growing up with absent parents, they understand the importance of being available to their families. X-ers are also innovative thinkers who crave variety of projects in their positions and they like different experiences.

Experiences of Generation Y
Y2Curious: America's Generation Y has grown up around various phenomena including the Internet with online chatting, Wikipedia, YouTube and its numerous informational resources, digital video and music, Tickle Me Elmos, continued abuse of underage drinking and iPods. Sophia Yan Yan, S. (2006, December 8). Understanding generation Y. The Oberlin Review.

Tendencies of Generation Y
They are generally more financially savvy: saving for retirement,

and retirement benefits are very important Employee and employer loyalty have disappeared. Are less likely to be obsessed with work; They are more interested in preserving their quality of life, even if it means staying at the same position in the labor hierarchy. Dress more casually Members of Generation Y are characterized as being more racially and culturally tolerant than past generations. Gay rights and non-traditional gender roles have also become more widely accepted.

Yan, S. (2006, December 8). Understanding generation Y. The Oberlin Review.

European Millennials in the Workplace

Characteristics Mobile Multilingual professionals Work and play in Europe without borders What do they want out of their work? Money is not the most important thing. Maintaining balance Cultivate personal relationships Leisure They want to make a difference and feel they can. Theyre not afraid to leave a job if its not what they want. Young Europeans for the most part are most concerned with; Environment Global warning Pollution

Ratnesar, R. Generation Europe. (2001, April 12). Time.

Generations and Education

Changes to Post-Secondary Education

Higher enrollment
More students attend college part-time than in

previous years More women are attending More students are over the age of twenty-five Several generations in one class at a time; professors are still mostly Baby Boomers (50+), some older GenXers (40+)

The new Student Population

Delayed enrollment (did not enter postsecondary

education in the student graduated from high school) Part-time attendance Work full-time, thirty-five hours or more, while going to school Are financially independent (Financial aid definition) Have dependents Are single parents Are mature students, who have no high school diploma

Tendencies of Millennials
gravitate toward group activity
identify with their parents' values and feel close to

their parents spend more time doing homework and housework and less time watching TV believe "it's cool to be smart" are fascinated by new technologies are racially and ethnically diverse often (one in five) have at least one immigrant parent.

Attitudes of Millennials
Computers aren't technology
Typing is preferred to handwriting. Staying connected is essential. There is zero tolerance for delays. Consumer and creator are blurring. Reality is no longer real. (Perspectives) Doing is more important than knowing. Learning more closely resembles games than logic. Multitasking is a way of life.

Millennial Generation Learning Preference Tendencies

Experiential activities Structure Use of technology (students believe they are more tech

savvy than their teachers or professors) Strengths: multitasking, goal orientation, positive attitudes and a collaborative style.

Implications for Educators and School Cultures

Schools, colleges and universities are providing a

various options to meet students' expectations for service, immediacy, interactivity. There is no one correct formula. Students often range in ages/generations, learning styles, and preferences in communication. Administrators and educators must adapt their facility, curriculum, classes, etc. to meet the needs of such a varied range of students, taking into consideration the tendencies of certain generations, their preferences and learning styles.

Belhassen, S. (2009). Generation X: In defiance of the box. Understanding generation X and workplace application. Blandford, S. & Shaw, M. (2001). Managing international schools. London: Routledge Falmer. Jandt, F. (2007). An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community. Thousand Oaks, USA: Sage Publications. Lang. S. (2001). CU sociologists book claims Generation Xers adopt chameleon personalities to cope with anxiety, fears. Retrieved March 6, 2005, from Cornell Chronicle: McGlyn, A. (2005, December). Teaching millenials, Our newest cultural cohort. Retrieved June 29, 2009 from

Bibliography Continued
No author. (2006, April 26) Older workers underappreciated in workplace, says survey. . Retrrieved April 13, 2009 from Oblinger, D. (2003). Boomers, Gen-Xers and Millennials: Understanding new students. Educause . Retrieved June 30, 2009 from Pikul. C. (2005). Back to school at 52. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from Thompson, E. (2009, June 3). Dumbest generation? Professor blames technology. USA Today. Yan, S. (2006, December 8). Understanding generation Y. The Oberlin Review. Retrieved on June 30, 2009 from on_Y.html

Cultural Borders and Mental Barriers: The Relationship Between Living Abroad and Creativity
William W. Maddux and Adam D. Galinsky Abstract: Despite abundant anecdotal evidence that creativity is associated with living in foreign countries, there is currently little empirical evidence for this relationship.Five studies employinga multimethodapproach systematically explored the link between living abroad and creativity. Using both individual and dyadic creativity tasks, Studies 1 and 2 provided initial demonstrations that time spent living abroad (but not time spent traveling abroad) showed a positive relationship with creativity. Study 3 demonstrated that priming foreign living experiences temporarily enhanced creative tendencies for participants who had previously lived abroad. In Study 4, the degree to which individuals had adapted to different cultures while living abroad mediated the link between foreign living experience and creativity. Study 5 found that priming the experience of adapting to a foreign culture temporarily enhanced creativity for participants who had previously lived abroad. The relationship between living abroad and creativity was consistent across a number of creativity measures (including those measuring insight, association, and generation), as well as with masters of business administration and undergraduate samples, both in the United States and Europe, demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon. Maddux, G. and Galinsky, A. (2009). Cultural borders and mental barriers: The relationship between living abroad and Creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96/5.