Operations Management

William J. Stevenson

8th edition







Operations Management, Eighth Edition, by William J. Stevenson Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

facilities and human activities in an organization Effective scheduling can yield    Cost savings Increases in productivity .15-3 Scheduling Scheduling  Scheduling: Establishing the timing of the use of equipment.

15-4 Scheduling High-Volume Systems  Flow system: High-volume system with Standardized equipment and activities  Flow-shop scheduling: Scheduling for highvolume flow system Work Center #1 Work Center #2 Output .

15-5 Scheduling Manufacturing Operations High-volume JAN Build A Scheduling FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Intermediatevolume Low-volume A Done Build B B Done Build C Service operations C Done Build D Ship On time! .

15-6 Scheduling High-Volume Success Factors       Process and product design Preventive maintenance Rapid repair when breakdown occurs Optimal product mixes Minimization of quality problems Reliability and timing of supplies .

and sequence of jobs  Economic run size: Q0  2DS p H p u . timing.15-7 Scheduling Intermediate-Volume Systems  Outputs are between standardized highvolume systems and made-to-order job shops  Run size.

assignment of jobs to process centers  Sequencing .15-8 Scheduling Scheduling Low-Volume Systems  Loading .determining the order in which jobs will be processed  Job-shop scheduling  Scheduling for low-volume systems with many variations in requirements .

Tues.15-9 Scheduling Gantt Load Chart Figure 15. Wed.2  Gantt chart . Center 1 Job 3 Job 4 2 Job 3 Job 7 3 Job 1 Job 6 Job 7 4 Job 10 . Thurs. Fri.used as a visual aid for loading and scheduling Work Mon.

15-10 Scheduling Loading        Infinite loading Finite loading Vertical loading Horizontal loading Forward scheduling Backward scheduling Schedule chart .

Workstation: An area where one person works.15-11 Scheduling Sequencing  Sequencing: Determine the order in which jobs at a work center will be processed.  . on a specialized job. usually with special equipment.

. Everything is #1 Priority  Job time: Time needed for setup and processing of a job.15-12 Scheduling Sequencing  Priority rules: Simple heuristics used to select the order in which jobs will be processed.

first come.critical ratio S/O . first served SPT .emergency Top Priority .15-13 Scheduling Priority Rules Table 15.slack per operation Rush .shortest processing time     EDD .earliest due date CR .2   FCFS .

00 6.93 2.33 22.67 6.15-14 Scheduling Example 2 Average Number of Jobs at the Work Center 2.67 .17 Average Tardiness (days) 9.24 Table 15.4 Rule FCFS SPT EDD CR Average Flow Time (days) 20.68 3.33 9.00 18.00 18.63 2.

  Minimizes total idle time Several conditions must be satisfied .15-15 Scheduling Two Work Center Sequencing  Johnson’s Rule: technique for minimizing completion time for a group of jobs to be processed on two machines or at two work centers.

15-16 Scheduling Johnson’s Rule Conditions   Job time must be known and constant Job times must be independent of sequence Jobs must follow same two-step sequence    Job priorities cannot be used All units must be completed at the first work center before moving to second .

3. List the jobs and their times at each work center Select the job with the shortest time Eliminate the job from further consideration Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all jobs have been scheduled . 4.15-17 Scheduling Johnson’s Rule Optimum Sequence 1. 2.

15-18 Scheduling Scheduling Difficulties  Variability in  Setup times  Processing times  Interruptions  Changes in the set of jobs  No method for identifying optimal schedule  Scheduling is not an exact science  Ongoing task for a manager .

15-19 Scheduling Minimizing Scheduling Difficulties Set realistic due dates Focus on bottleneck operations Consider lot splitting of large jobs    .

15-20 Scheduling Scheduling Service Operations  Appointment systems  Controls customer arrivals for service  Reservation systems  Estimates demand for service Manages capacity for service Coordinates use of more than one resource  Scheduling the workforce   Scheduling multiple resources  .

supermarkets  Rotating schedules  Set a scheduling horizon  Identify the work pattern  Develop a basic employee schedule  Assign employees to the schedule . police/fire departments. restaurants.15-21 Scheduling Cyclical Scheduling  Hospitals.

15-22 Scheduling Service Operation Problems  Cannot store or inventory services  Customer service requests are random  Scheduling service involves  Customers  Workforce  Equipment .

15-23 Scheduling Service Scheduling SSU1 Overview—United Airlines .

15-24 Scheduling Service Scheduling SSU2 United Airlines Flight Schedule .

15-25 Scheduling Schedule PS8 Painting Example (Washburn Guitar) .

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